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Zieger, A., Freiling, F., Kossakowski, K..  2018.  The β-Time-to-Compromise Metric for Practical Cyber Security Risk Estimation. 2018 11th International Conference on IT Security Incident Management IT Forensics (IMF). :115–133.

To manage cybersecurity risks in practice, a simple yet effective method to assess suchs risks for individual systems is needed. With time-to-compromise (TTC), McQueen et al. (2005) introduced such a metric that measures the expected time that a system remains uncompromised given a specific threat landscape. Unlike other approaches that require complex system modeling to proceed, TTC combines simplicity with expressiveness and therefore has evolved into one of the most successful cybersecurity metrics in practice. We revisit TTC and identify several mathematical and methodological shortcomings which we address by embedding all aspects of the metric into the continuous domain and the possibility to incorporate information about vulnerability characteristics and other cyber threat intelligence into the model. We propose β-TTC, a formal extension of TTC which includes information from CVSS vectors as well as a continuous attacker skill based on a β-distribution. We show that our new metric (1) remains simple enough for practical use and (2) gives more realistic predictions than the original TTC by using data from a modern and productively used vulnerability database of a national CERT.

Korczyński, Maciej, Król, Micha\textbackslashl, van Eeten, Michel.  2016.  Zone Poisoning: The How and Where of Non-Secure DNS Dynamic Updates. Proceedings of the 2016 Internet Measurement Conference. :271–278.

This paper illuminates the problem of non-secure DNS dynamic updates, which allow a miscreant to manipulate DNS entries in the zone files of authoritative name servers. We refer to this type of attack as to zone poisoning. This paper presents the first measurement study of the vulnerability. We analyze a random sample of 2.9 million domains and the Alexa top 1 million domains and find that at least 1,877 (0.065%) and 587 (0.062%) of domains are vulnerable, respectively. Among the vulnerable domains are governments, health care providers and banks, demonstrating that the threat impacts important services. Via this study and subsequent notifications to affected parties, we aim to improve the security of the DNS ecosystem.

Kumar, S., Singh, C. Bhim Bhan.  2018.  A Zero-Day Resistant Malware Detection Method for Securing Cloud Using SVM and Sandboxing Techniques. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1397–1402.

Cloud nowaday has become the backbone of the IT infrastructure. Whole of the infrastructure is now being shifted to the clouds, and as the cloud involves all of the networking schemes and the OS images, it inherits all of the vulnerabilities too. And hence securing them is one of our very prior concerns. Malwares are one of the many other problems that have ever growing and hence need to be eradicated from the system. The history of mal wares go long back in time since the advent of computers and hence a lot of techniques has also been already devised to tackle with the problem in some or other way. But most of them fall short in some or other way or are just too heavy to execute on a simple user machine. Our approach devises a 3 - phase exhaustive technique which confirms the detection of any kind of malwares from the host. It also works for the zero-day attacks that are really difficult to cover most times and can be of really high-risk at times. We have thought of a solution to keep the things light weight for the user.

Pallaprolu, S. C., Sankineni, R., Thevar, M., Karabatis, G., Wang, J..  2017.  Zero-Day Attack Identification in Streaming Data Using Semantics and Spark. 2017 IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress). :121–128.

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have been in existence for many years now, but they fall short in efficiently detecting zero-day attacks. This paper presents an organic combination of Semantic Link Networks (SLN) and dynamic semantic graph generation for the on the fly discovery of zero-day attacks using the Spark Streaming platform for parallel detection. In addition, a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (MRMR) feature selection algorithm is deployed to determine the most discriminating features of the dataset. Compared to previous studies on zero-day attack identification, the described method yields better results due to the semantic learning and reasoning on top of the training data and due to the use of collaborative classification methods. We also verified the scalability of our method in a distributed environment.

Kalokyri, Varvara, Borgida, Alexander, Marian, Amélie.  2018.  YourDigitalSelf: A Personal Digital Trace Integration Tool. Proceedings of the 27th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. :1963–1966.
Personal information is typically fragmented across multiple, heterogeneous, distributed sources and saved as small, heterogeneous data objects, or traces. The DigitalSelf project at Rutgers University focuses on developing tools and techniques to manage (organize, search, summarize, make inferences on and personalize) such heterogeneous collections of personal digital traces. We propose to demonstrate YourDigitalSelf, a mobile phone-based personal information organization application developed as part of the DigitalSelf project. The demonstration will use a sample user data set to show how several disparate data traces can be integrated and combined to create personal narratives, or coherent episodes, of the user's activities. Conference attendees will be given the option to install YourDigitalSelf on their own devices to interact with their own data.
Johnston, Reece, Kim, Sun-il, Coe, David, Etzkorn, Letha, Kulick, Jeffrey, Milenkovic, Aleksandar.  2016.  Xen Network Flow Analysis for Intrusion Detection. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Cyber and Information Security Research Conference. :18:1–18:4.

Virtualization technology has become ubiquitous in the computing world. With it, a number of security concerns have been amplified as users run adjacently on a single host. In order to prevent attacks from both internal and external sources, the networking of such systems must be secured. Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) are an important tool for aiding this effort. These systems work by analyzing flow or packet information to determine malicious intent. However, it is difficult to implement a NIDS on a virtualized system due to their complexity. This is especially true for the Xen hypervisor: Xen has incredible heterogeneity when it comes to implementation, making a generic solution difficult. In this paper, we analyze the network data flow of a typical Xen implementation along with identifying features common to any implementation. We then explore the benefits of placing security checks along the data flow and promote a solution within the hypervisor itself.

Kalbarczyk, Tomasz, Julien, Christine.  2016.  XD (Exchange-deliver): \#a Middleware for Developing Device-to-device Mobile Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Software Engineering and Systems. :271–274.

In this demonstration, we showcase the XD middleware, a framework for expressive multiplexing of application communication streams onto underlying device-to-device communication links. XD allows applications to remain agnostic about which low-level networking stack is actually delivering messages and instead focus on the application-level content and delivery parameters. The IoT space has been flooded with new communication technologies (e.g., BLE, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN) to add to those already available on modern mobile devices (e.g., BLE, WiFi-Direct), substantially increasing the barrier to entry for developing innovative IoT applications. XD presents application developers with a simple publish-subscribe API for sending and receiving data streams, unburdening them from the task of selecting and coordinating communication channels. Our demonstration shows two Android applications, Disseminate and Prophet, running using our XD middleware for communication. We implemented BLE, WiFi Direct with TCP, and WiFi Direct with UDP communication stacks underneath XD.

Meskauskas, Z., Jasinevicius, R., Kazanavicius, E., Petrauskas, V..  2020.  XAI-Based Fuzzy SWOT Maps for Analysis of Complex Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
The classical SWOT methodology and many of the tools based on it used so far are very static, used for one stable project and lacking dynamics [1]. This paper proposes the idea of combining several SWOT analyses enriched with computing with words (CWW) paradigm into a single network. In this network, individual analysis of the situation is treated as the node. The whole structure is based on fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) that have forward and backward chaining, so it is called fuzzy SWOT maps. Fuzzy SWOT maps methodology newly introduces the dynamics that projects are interacting, what exists in a real dynamic environment. The whole fuzzy SWOT maps network structure has explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) traits because each node in this network is a "white box"-all the reasoning chain can be tracked and checked why a particular decision has been made, which increases explainability by being able to check the rules to determine why a particular decision was made or why and how one project affects another. To confirm the vitality of the approach, a case with three interacting projects has been analyzed with a developed prototypical software tool and results are delivered.
Kacimi, Zineb, Benhlima, Laila.  2017.  XACML Policies into mongoDB for Privacy Access Control. Proceedings of the Mediterranean Symposium on Smart City Application. :9:1–9:5.

Nowadays Big data is considered as one of the major technologies used to manage a huge number of data, but there is little consideration of privacy in big data platforms. Indeed, developers don't focus on implementing security best practices in their programs to protect personal and sensitive data, and organizations can face financial lost because of this noncompliance with applied regulations. In this paper, we propose a solution to insert privacy policies written in XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) in access control solution to NoSQL database, our solution can be used for NoSQL data store which doesn't t include many access control features, it aims basically to ensure fine grained access control considering purpose as the main parameter, we will focus on access control in document level, and apply this approach to MongoDB which is the most used NoSQL data store.

Khanuja, H., Suratkar, S.S..  2014.  #x201C;Role of metadata in forensic analysis of database attacks #x201C;. Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2014 IEEE International. :457-462.

With the spectacular increase in online activities like e-transactions, security and privacy issues are at the peak with respect to their significance. Large numbers of database security breaches are occurring at a very high rate on daily basis. So, there is a crucial need in the field of database forensics to make several redundant copies of sensitive data found in database server artifacts, audit logs, cache, table storage etc. for analysis purposes. Large volume of metadata is available in database infrastructure for investigation purposes but most of the effort lies in the retrieval and analysis of that information from computing systems. Thus, in this paper we mainly focus on the significance of metadata in database forensics. We proposed a system here to perform forensics analysis of database by generating its metadata file independent of the DBMS system used. We also aim to generate the digital evidence against criminals for presenting it in the court of law in the form of who, when, why, what, how and where did the fraudulent transaction occur. Thus, we are presenting a system to detect major database attacks as well as anti-forensics attacks by developing an open source database forensics tool. Eventually, we are pointing out the challenges in the field of forensics and how these challenges can be used as opportunities to stimulate the areas of database forensics.

Nistor, Ligia, Kurilova, Darya, Balzer, Stephanie, Chung, Benjamin, Potanin, Alex, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2013.  Wyvern: A Simple, Typed, and Pure Object-oriented Language. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on MechAnisms for SPEcialization, Generalization and inHerItance. :9–16.
The simplest and purest practical object-oriented language designs today are seen in dynamically-typed languages, such as Smalltalk and Self. Static types, however, have potential benefits for productivity, security, and reasoning about programs. In this paper, we describe the design of Wyvern, a statically typed, pure object-oriented language that attempts to retain much of the simplicity and expressiveness of these iconic designs. Our goals lead us to combine pure object-oriented and functional abstractions in a simple, typed setting. We present a foundational object-based language that we believe to be as close as one can get to simple typed lambda calculus while keeping object-orientation. We show how this foundational language can be translated to the typed lambda calculus via standard encodings. We then define a simple extension to this language that introduces classes and show that classes are no more than sugar for the foundational object-based language. Our future intention is to demonstrate that modules and other object-oriented features can be added to our language as not more than such syntactical extensions while keeping the object-oriented core as pure as possible. The design of Wyvern closely follows both historical and modern ideas about the essence of object-orientation, suggesting a new way to think about a minimal, practical, typed core language for objects.
Lee, Hyun-Young, Kang, Seung-Shik.  2019.  Word Embedding Method of SMS Messages for Spam Message Filtering. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp). :1–4.
SVM has been one of the most popular machine learning method for the binary classification such as sentiment analysis and spam message filtering. We explored a word embedding method for the construction of a feature vector and the deep learning method for the binary classification. CBOW is used as a word embedding technique and feedforward neural network is applied to classify SMS messages into ham or spam. The accuracy of the two classification methods of SVM and neural network are compared for the binary classification. The experimental result shows that the accuracy of deep learning method is better than the conventional machine learning method of SVM-light in the binary classification.
Shah, Syed W., Kanhere, Salil S..  2018.  Wi-Sign: Device-Free Second Factor User Authentication. Proceedings of the 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :135-144.

Most two-factor authentication (2FA) implementations rely on the user possessing and interacting with a secondary device (e.g. mobile phone) which has contributed to the lack of widespread uptake. We present a 2FA system, called Wi-Sign that does not rely on a secondary device for establishing the second factor. The user is required to sign at a designated place on the primary device with his finger following a successful first step of authentication (i.e. username + password). Wi-Sign captures the unique perturbations in the WiFi signals incurred due to the hand motion while signing and uses these to establish the second factor. Wi-Sign detects these perturbations by measuring the fine-grained Channel State Information (CSI) of the ambient WiFi signals at the device from which log-in attempt is being made. The logic is that, the user's hand geometry and the way he moves his hand while signing cause unique perturbations in CSI time-series. After filtering noise from the CSI data, principal component analysis is employed for compressing the CSI data. For segmentation of sign related perturbations, Wi-Sign utilizes the thresholding approach based on the variance of the first-order difference of the selected principal component. Finally, the authentication decision is made by feeding scrupulously selected features to a One-Class SVM classifier. We implement Wi-Sign using commodity off-the-shelf 802.11n devices and evaluate its performance by recruiting 14 volunteers. Our evaluation shows that Wi-Sign can on average achieve 79% TPR. Moreover, Wi-Sign can detect attacks with an average TNR of 86%.

Shinde, P., Karve, A., Mandaliya, P., Patil, S..  2018.  Wireless Security Audit Penetration Test Using Raspberry Pi. 2018 International Conference on Smart City and Emerging Technology (ICSCET). :1-4.

With the advancement in the wireless technology there are more and more devices connected over WiFi network. Security is one of the major concerns about WiFi other than performance, range, usability, etc. WiFi Auditor is a collection of WiFi testing tools and services packed together inside Raspberry Pi 3 module. The WiFi auditor allows the penetration tester to conduct WiFi attacks and reconnaissance on the selected client or on the complete network. WiFi auditor is portable and stealth hence allowing the attacker to simulate the attacks without anyone noticing them. WiFi auditor provides services such as deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications which can be done to the whole network or just a particular node.

Chrysikos, T., Dagiuklas, T., Kotsopoulos, S..  2010.  Wireless Information-Theoretic Security for moving users in autonomic networks. 2010 IFIP Wireless Days. :1–5.
This paper studies Wireless Information-Theoretic Security for low-speed mobility in autonomic networks. More specifically, the impact of user movement on the Probability of Non-Zero Secrecy Capacity and Outage Secrecy Capacity for different channel conditions has been investigated. This is accomplished by establishing a link between different user locations and the boundaries of information-theoretic secure communication. Human mobility scenarios are considered, and its impact on physical layer security is examined, considering quasi-static Rayleigh channels for the fading phenomena. Simulation results have shown that the Secrecy Capacity depends on the relative distance of legitimate and illegitimate (eavesdropper) users in reference to the given transmitter.
Kuo, J., Lal, A..  2017.  Wideband material detection for spoof resistance in GHz ultrasonic fingerprint sensing. 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :1–1.
One of the primary motivations for using ultrasound reflectometry for fingerprint imaging is the promise of increased spoof resistance over conventional optical or capacitive sensing approaches due to the ability for ultrasound to determine the elastic impedance of the imaged material. A fake 3D printed plastic finger can therefore be easily distinguished from a real finger. However, ultrasonic sensors are still vulnerable to materials that are similar in impedance to tissue, such as water or rubber. Previously we demonstrated an ultrasonic fingerprint reader operating with 1.3GHz ultrasound based on pulse echo impedance imaging on the backside silicon interface. In this work, we utilize the large bandwidth of these sensors to differentiate between a finger and materials with similar impedances using the frequency response of elastic impedance obtained by transducer excitation with a wideband RF chirp signal. The reflected signal is a strong function of impedance mismatch and absorption [Hoople 2015].
Kang, Lei, Feeney, Andrew, Somerset, Will, Dixon, Steve.  2019.  Wideband Electromagnetic Dynamic Acoustic Transducer as a Standard Acoustic Source for Air-coupled Ultrasonic Sensors. 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :2481–2484.
To experimentally study the characteristics of ultrasonic sensors, a wideband air-coupled ultrasonic transducer, wideband electromagnetic dynamic acoustic transducer (WEMDAT), is designed and fabricated. Characterisation methods, including electrical impedance analysis, laser Doppler vibrometry and pressure-field microphone measurement, are used to examine the performance of the WEMDAT, which have shown that the transducer has a wide bandwidth ranging approximately from 47 kHz to 145 kHz and a good directivity with a beam angle of around 20˚ with no evident side lobes. A 40 kHz commercial flexural ultrasonic transducer (FUT) is then taken as an example to receive ultrasonic waves in a pitch-catch configuration to evaluate the performance of the WEMDAT as an acoustic source. Experiment results have demonstrated that the WEMDAT can maintain the most of the frequency content of a 5 cycle 40 kHz tone burst electric signal and convert it into an ultrasonic wave for studying the dynamic characteristic and the directivity pattern of the ultrasonic receiver. A comparison of the dynamic characteristics between the transmitting and the receiving processes of the same FUT reveals that the FUT has a wider bandwidth when operating as an ultrasonic receiver than operating as a transmitter, which indicates that it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the receiving process of an ultrasonic transducer, demonstrating a huge potential of the WEMDAT serving as a standard acoustic source for ultrasonic sensors for various air-coupled ultrasonic applications.
Koh, John S., Bellovin, Steven M., Nieh, Jason.  2019.  Why Joanie Can Encrypt: Easy Email Encryption with Easy Key Management. Proceedings of the Fourteenth EuroSys Conference 2019. :1–16.

Email privacy is of crucial importance. Existing email encryption approaches are comprehensive but seldom used due to their complexity and inconvenience. We take a new approach to simplify email encryption and improve its usability by implementing receiver-controlled encryption: newly received messages are transparently downloaded and encrypted to a locally-generated key; the original message is then replaced. To avoid the problem of moving a single private key between devices, we implement per-device key pairs: only public keys need be synchronized via a simple verification step. Compromising an email account or server only provides access to encrypted emails. We implemented this scheme on several platforms, showing it works with PGP and S/MIME, is compatible with widely used mail clients and email services including Gmail, has acceptable overhead, and that users consider it intuitive and easy to use.

Peck, Sarah Marie, Khan, Mohammad Maifi Hasan, Fahim, Md Abdullah Al, Coman, Emil N, Jensen, Theodore, Albayram, Yusuf.  2020.  Who Would Bob Blame? Factors in Blame Attribution in Cyberattacks Among the Non-Adopting Population in the Context of 2FA 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :778–789.
This study focuses on identifying the factors contributing to a sense of personal responsibility that could improve understanding of insecure cybersecurity behavior and guide research toward more effective messaging targeting non-adopting populations. Towards that, we ran a 2(account type) x2(usage scenario) x2(message type) between-group study with 237 United States adult participants on Amazon MTurk, and investigated how the non-adopting population allocates blame, and under what circumstances they blame the end user among the parties who hold responsibility: the software companies holding data, the attackers exposing data, and others. We find users primarily hold service providers accountable for breaches but they feel the same companies should not enforce stronger security policies on users. Results indicate that people do hold end users accountable for their behavior in the event of a breach, especially when the users' behavior affects others. Implications of our findings in risk communication is discussed in the paper.
Kamilin, M. H. B., Yamaguchi, S..  2020.  White-Hat Worm Launcher Based on Deep Learning in Botnet Defense System. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Asia (ICCE-Asia). :1—2.

This paper proposes a deep learning-based white-hat worm launcher in Botnet Defense System (BDS). BDS uses white-hat botnets to defend an IoT system against malicious botnets. White-hat worm launcher literally launches white-hat worms to create white-hat botnets according to the strategy decided by BDS. The proposed launcher learns with deep learning where is the white-hat worms' right place to successfully drive out malicious botnets. Given a system situation invaded by malicious botnets, it predicts a worms' placement by the learning result and launches them. We confirmed the effect of the proposed launcher through simulating evaluation.

Komargodski, Ilan, Naor, Moni, Yogev, Eylon.  2017.  White-Box vs. Black-Box Complexity of Search Problems: Ramsey and Graph Property Testing. 2017 IEEE 58th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS). :622–632.
Ramsey theory assures us that in any graph there is a clique or independent set of a certain size, roughly logarithmic in the graph size. But how difficult is it to find the clique or independent set? If the graph is given explicitly, then it is possible to do so while examining a linear number of edges. If the graph is given by a black-box, where to figure out whether a certain edge exists the box should be queried, then a large number of queries must be issued. But what if one is given a program or circuit for computing the existence of an edge? This problem was raised by Buss and Goldberg and Papadimitriou in the context of TFNP, search problems with a guaranteed solution. We examine the relationship between black-box complexity and white-box complexity for search problems with guaranteed solution such as the above Ramsey problem. We show that under the assumption that collision resistant hash function exist (which follows from the hardness of problems such as factoring, discrete-log and learning with errors) the white-box Ramsey problem is hard and this is true even if one is looking for a much smaller clique or independent set than the theorem guarantees. In general, one cannot hope to translate all black-box hardness for TFNP into white-box hardness: we show this by adapting results concerning the random oracle methodology and the impossibility of instantiating it. Another model we consider is the succinct black-box, where there is a known upper bound on the size of the black-box (but no limit on the computation time). In this case we show that for all TFNP problems there is an upper bound on the number of queries proportional to the description size of the box times the solution size. On the other hand, for promise problems this is not the case. Finally, we consider the complexity of graph property testing in the white-box model. We show a property which is hard to test even when one is given the program for computing the graph. The hard property is whether the graph is a two-source extractor.
Khorsandroo, Sajad, Tosun, Ali Saman.  2019.  White Box Analysis at the Service of Low Rate Saturation Attacks on Virtual SDN Data Plane. 2019 IEEE 44th LCN Symposium on Emerging Topics in Networking (LCN Symposium). :100—107.

Today's virtual switches not only support legacy network protocols and standard network management interfaces, but also become adapted to OpenFlow as a prevailing communication protocol. This makes them a core networking component of today's virtualized infrastructures which are able to handle sophisticated networking scenarios in a flexible and software-defined manner. At the same time, these virtual SDN data planes become high-value targets because a compromised switch is hard to detect while it affects all components of a virtualized/SDN-based environment.Most of the well known programmable virtual switches in the market are open source which makes them cost-effective and yet highly configurable options in any network infrastructure deployment. However, this comes at a cost which needs to be addressed. Accordingly, this paper raises an alarm on how attackers may leverage white box analysis of software switch functionalities to lunch effective low profile attacks against it. In particular, we practically present how attackers can systematically take advantage of static and dynamic code analysis techniques to lunch a low rate saturation attack on virtual SDN data plane in a cloud data center.

Hong, H., Choi, H., Kim, D., Kim, H., Hong, B., Noh, J., Kim, Y..  2017.  When Cellular Networks Met IPv6: Security Problems of Middleboxes in IPv6 Cellular Networks. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :595–609.

Recently, cellular operators have started migrating to IPv6 in response to the increasing demand for IP addresses. With the introduction of IPv6, cellular middleboxes, such as firewalls for preventing malicious traffic from the Internet and stateful NAT64 boxes for providing backward compatibility with legacy IPv4 services, have become crucial to maintain stability of cellular networks. This paper presents security problems of the currently deployed IPv6 middleboxes of five major operators. To this end, we first investigate several key features of the current IPv6 deployment that can harm the safety of a cellular network as well as its customers. These features combined with the currently deployed IPv6 middlebox allow an adversary to launch six different attacks. First, firewalls in IPv6 cellular networks fail to block incoming packets properly. Thus, an adversary could fingerprint cellular devices with scanning, and further, she could launch denial-of-service or over-billing attacks. Second, vulnerabilities in the stateful NAT64 box, a middlebox that maps an IPv6 address to an IPv4 address (and vice versa), allow an adversary to launch three different attacks: 1) NAT overflow attack that allows an adversary to overflow the NAT resources, 2) NAT wiping attack that removes active NAT mappings by exploiting the lack of TCP sequence number verification of firewalls, and 3) NAT bricking attack that targets services adopting IP-based blacklisting by preventing the shared external IPv4 address from accessing the service. We confirmed the feasibility of these attacks with an empirical analysis. We also propose effective countermeasures for each attack.

Naves, Raphael, Jakllari, Gentian, Khalife, Hicham, Conant, Vania, Beylot, Andre-Luc.  2018.  When Analog Meets Digital: Source-Encoded Physical-Layer Network Coding. 2018 IEEE 19th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :1–9.
We revisit Physical-Layer Network Coding (PLNC) and the reasons preventing it from becoming a staple in wireless networks. We identify its strong coupling to the Two-Way Relay Channel (TWRC) as key among them due to its requiring crossing traffic flows and two-hop node coordination. We introduce SE-PLNC, a Source-Encoded PLNC scheme that is traffic pattern independent and involves coordination only among one-hop neighbors, making it significantly more practical to adopt PLNC in multi-hop wireless networks. To accomplish this, SE-PLNC introduces three innovations: it combines bit-level with physical-level network coding, it shifts most of the coding burden from the relay to the source of the PLNC scheme, and it leverages multi-path relaying opportunities available to a particular traffic flow. We evaluate SE-PLNC using theoretical analysis, proof-of-concept implementation on a Universal Software Radio Peripherals (USRP) testbed, and simulations. The theoretical analysis shows the scalability of SE-PLNC and its efficiency in large ad-hoc networks while the testbed experiments its real-life feasibility. Large-scale simulations show that TWRC PLNC barely boosts network throughput while SE-PLNC improves it by over 30%.
Manikonda, Lydia, Deotale, Aditya, Kambhampati, Subbarao.  2018.  What's Up with Privacy?: User Preferences and Privacy Concerns in Intelligent Personal Assistants Proceedings of the 2018 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. :229–235.

The recent breakthroughs in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have allowed individuals to rely on automated systems for a variety of reasons. Some of these systems are the currently popular voice-enabled systems like Echo by Amazon and Home by Google that are also called as Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs). Though there are rising concerns about privacy and ethical implications, users of these IPAs seem to continue using these systems. We aim to investigate to what extent users are concerned about privacy and how they are handling these concerns while using the IPAs. By utilizing the reviews posted online along with the responses to a survey, this paper provides a set of insights about the detected markers related to user interests and privacy challenges. The insights suggest that users of these systems irrespective of their concerns about privacy, are generally positive in terms of utilizing IPAs in their everyday lives. However, there is a significant percentage of users who are concerned about privacy and take further actions to address related concerns. Some percentage of users expressed that they do not have any privacy concerns but when they learned about the "always listening" feature of these devices, their concern about privacy increased.