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Ozmen, Muslum Ozgur, Yavuz, Attila A..  2017.  Low-Cost Standard Public Key Cryptography Services for Wireless IoT Systems. Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Internet of Things Security and Privacy. :65–70.

Internet of Things (IoT) is an integral part of application domains such as smart-home and digital healthcare. Various standard public key cryptography techniques (e.g., key exchange, public key encryption, signature) are available to provide fundamental security services for IoTs. However, despite their pervasiveness and well-proven security, they also have been shown to be highly energy costly for embedded devices. Hence, it is a critical task to improve the energy efficiency of standard cryptographic services, while preserving their desirable properties simultaneously. In this paper, we exploit synergies among various cryptographic primitives with algorithmic optimizations to substantially reduce the energy consumption of standard cryptographic techniques on embedded devices. Our contributions are: (i) We harness special precomputation techniques, which have not been considered for some important cryptographic standards to boost the performance of key exchange, integrated encryption, and hybrid constructions. (ii) We provide self-certification for these techniques to push their performance to the edge. (iii) We implemented our techniques and their counterparts on 8-bit AVR ATmega 2560 and evaluated their performance. We used microECC library and made the implementations on NIST-recommended secp192 curve, due to its standardization. Our experiments confirmed significant improvements on the battery life (up to 7x) while preserving the desirable properties of standard techniques. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first open-source framework including such set of optimizations on low-end devices.

Ozmen, Alper, Yildiz, Huseyin Ugur, Tavli, Bulent.  2020.  Impact of Minimizing the Eavesdropping Risks on Lifetime of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. 2020 28th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are often deployed in hostile environments, and they face many security threats. Moreover, due to the harsh characteristics of the underwater environment, UASNs are vulnerable to malicious attacks. One of the most dangerous security threats is the eavesdropping attack, where an adversary silently collects the information exchanged between the sensor nodes. Although careful assignment of transmission power levels and optimization of data flow paths help alleviate the extent of eavesdropping attacks, the network lifetime can be negatively affected since routing could be established using sub-optimal paths in terms of energy efficiency. In this work, two optimization models are proposed where the first model minimizes the potential eavesdropping risks in the network while the second model maximizes the network lifetime under a certain level of an eavesdropping risk. The results show that network lifetimes obtained when the eavesdropping risks are minimized significantly shorter than the network lifetimes obtained without considering any eavesdropping risks. Furthermore, as the countermeasures against the eavesdropping risks are relaxed, UASN lifetime is shown to be prolonged, significantly.
Özmat, Utku, Demirkol, Mehmet Fatih, Demirci, Nuran, Yazıcı, Mehmet Akif.  2020.  Enhancing Physical Layer Security with Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission in 5G and Beyond Networks. 2020 28th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Physical layer security has gained importance with the widespread use of wireless communication systems. Multiantenna systems and multi-point transmission techniques in 5G and beyond are promising techniques not only for enhancing data rates, but also physical layer security. Coordinated multipoint transmission is used for enhancing the service quality and decreasing inter-cell interference especially for cell-edge users. In this study, analysis of physical layer security enhancement via multi-antenna technologies and coordinated multi-point for 5G and beyond networks is provided. The proposed scheme is evaluated on calculations from real-life mobile network topologies. As a figure of performance, the secure and successful detection probability is computed with varying antenna array size, number of coordinated transmission points, and different service requirements.
Ozkan, N., Tarhan, A. K., Gören, B., Filiz, İ, Özer, E..  2020.  Harmonizing IT Frameworks and Agile Methods: Challenges and Solutions for the case of COBIT and Scrum. 2020 15th Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS). :709—719.
Information Technology (IT) is a complex domain. In order to properly manage IT related processes, several frameworks including ITIL (Information Technologies Infrastructure Library), COBIT (Control OBjectives for Information and related Technologies), IT Service CMMI (IT Service Capability Maturity Model) and many others have emerged in recent decades. Meanwhile, the prevalence of Agile methods has increased, posing the coexistence of Agile approach with different IT frameworks already adopted in organizations. More specifically, the pursuit of being agile in the area of digitalization pushes organizations to go for agile transformation while preserving full compliance to IT frameworks for the sake of their survival. The necessity for this coexistence, however, brings its own challenges and solutions for harmonizing the requirements of both parties. In this paper, we focus on harmonizing the requirements of COBIT and Scrum in a same organization, which is especially challenging when a full compliance to COBIT is expected. Therefore, this study aims to identifying the challenges of and possible solutions for the coexistence of Scrum and COBIT (version 4.1 in this case) in an organization, by considering two case studies: one from the literature and the case of Akbank delivered in this study. Thus, it extends the corresponding previous case study from two points: adds one more case study to enrich the results from the previous case study and provides more opportunity to make generalization by considering two independent cases.
ÖZGÜR, Berkecan, Dogru, Ibrahim Alper, Uçtu, Göksel, ALKAN, Mustafa.  2021.  A Suggested Model for Mobile Application Penetration Test Framework. 2021 International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCTURKEY). :18—21.

Along with technological developments in the mobile environment, mobile devices are used in many areas like banking, social media and communication. The common characteristic of applications in these fields is that they contain personal or financial information of users. These types of applications are developed for Android or IOS operating systems and have become the target of attackers. To detect weakness, security analysts, perform mobile penetration tests using security analysis tools. These analysis tools have advantages and disadvantages to each other. Some tools can prioritize static or dynamic analysis, others not including these types of tests. Within the scope of the current model, we are aim to gather security analysis tools under the penetration testing framework, also contributing analysis results by data fusion algorithm. With the suggested model, security analysts will be able to use these types of analysis tools in addition to using the advantage of fusion algorithms fed by analysis tools outputs.

Ozgur Kafali, Nirav Ajmeri, Munindar P. Singh.  2017.  Kont: Computing Tradeoffs in Normative Multiagent Systems. 31st Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI).
Ozga, Wojciech, Le Quoc, Do, Fetzer, Christof.  2021.  TRIGLAV: Remote Attestation of the Virtual Machine's Runtime Integrity in Public Clouds. 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :1–12.
Trust is of paramount concern for tenants to deploy their security-sensitive services in the cloud. The integrity of virtual machines (VMs) in which these services are deployed needs to be ensured even in the presence of powerful adversaries with administrative access to the cloud. Traditional approaches for solving this challenge leverage trusted computing techniques, e.g., vTPM, or hardware CPU extensions, e.g., AMD SEV. But, they are vulnerable to powerful adversaries, or they provide only load time (not runtime) integrity measurements of VMs. We propose TRIGLAV, a protocol allowing tenants to establish and maintain trust in VM runtime integrity of software and its configuration. TRIGLAV is transparent to the VM configuration and setup. It performs an implicit attestation of VMs during a secure login and binds the VM integrity state with the secure connection. Our prototype's evaluation shows that TRIGLAV is practical and incurs low performance overhead (\textbackslashtextless 6%).
Özer, E., İskefiyeli, M..  2017.  Detection of DDoS attack via deep packet analysis in real time systems. 2017 International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK). :1137–1140.

One of the biggest problems of today's internet technologies is cyber attacks. In this paper whether DDoS attacks will be determined by deep packet inspection. Initially packets are captured by listening of network traffic. Packet filtering was achieved at desired number and type. These packets are recorded to database to be analyzed, daily values and average values are compared by known attack patterns and will be determined whether a DDoS attack attempts in real time systems.

Ozeer, Umar, Etchevers, Xavier, Letondeur, Loïc, Ottogalli, Fran\c cois-Gaël, Salaün, Gwen, Vincent, Jean-Marc.  2018.  Resilience of Stateful IoT Applications in a Dynamic Fog Environment. Proceedings of the 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :332-341.

Fog computing provides computing, storage and communication resources at the edge of the network, near the physical world. Subsequently, end devices nearing the physical world can have interesting properties such as short delays, responsiveness, optimized communications and privacy. However, these end devices have low stability and are prone to failures. There is consequently a need for failure management protocols for IoT applications in the Fog. The design of such solutions is complex due to the specificities of the environment, i.e., (i) dynamic infrastructure where entities join and leave without synchronization, (ii) high heterogeneity in terms of functions, communication models, network, processing and storage capabilities, and, (iii) cyber-physical interactions which introduce non-deterministic and physical world's space and time dependent events. This paper presents a fault tolerance approach taking into account these three characteristics of the Fog-IoT environment. Fault tolerance is achieved by saving the state of the application in an uncoordinated way. When a failure is detected, notifications are propagated to limit the impact of failures and dynamically reconfigure the application. Data stored during the state saving process are used for recovery, taking into account consistency with respect to the physical world. The approach was validated through practical experiments on a smart home platform.

Ozdemir, M. A., Elagoz, B., Soy, A. Alaybeyoglu, Akan, A..  2020.  Deep Learning Based Facial Emotion Recognition System. 2020 Medical Technologies Congress (TIPTEKNO). :1—4.

In this study, it was aimed to recognize the emotional state from facial images using the deep learning method. In the study, which was approved by the ethics committee, a custom data set was created using videos taken from 20 male and 20 female participants while simulating 7 different facial expressions (happy, sad, surprised, angry, disgusted, scared, and neutral). Firstly, obtained videos were divided into image frames, and then face images were segmented using the Haar library from image frames. The size of the custom data set obtained after the image preprocessing is more than 25 thousand images. The proposed convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture which is mimics of LeNet architecture has been trained with this custom dataset. According to the proposed CNN architecture experiment results, the training loss was found as 0.0115, the training accuracy was found as 99.62%, the validation loss was 0.0109, and the validation accuracy was 99.71%.

Özdemir, Durmuş, Çelik, Dilek.  2021.  Analysis of Encrypted Image Data with Deep Learning Models. 2021 International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCTURKEY). :121—126.
While various encryption algorithms ensure data security, it is essential to determine the accuracy and loss values and performance status in the analyzes made to determine encrypted data by deep learning. In this research, the analysis steps made by applying deep learning methods to encrypted cifar10 picture data are presented practically. The data was tried to be estimated by training with VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50 deep learning models. During this period, the network’s performance was tried to be measured, and the accuracy and loss values in these calculations were shown graphically.
Ozan, Şükrü, Taşar, D. Emre.  2021.  Auto-tagging of Short Conversational Sentences using Natural Language Processing Methods. 2021 29th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1—4.
In this study, we aim to find a method to autotag sentences specific to a domain. Our training data comprises short conversational sentences extracted from chat conversations between company's customer representatives and web site visitors. We manually tagged approximately 14 thousand visitor inputs into ten basic categories, which will later be used in a transformer-based language model with attention mechanisms for the ultimate goal of developing a chatbot application that can produce meaningful dialogue.We considered three different stateof- the-art models and reported their auto-tagging capabilities. We achieved the best performance with the bidirectional encoder representation from transformers (BERT) model. Implementation of the models used in these experiments can be cloned from our GitHub repository and tested for similar auto-tagging problems without much effort.
Oyekanlu, E..  2018.  Distributed Osmotic Computing Approach to Implementation of Explainable Predictive Deep Learning at Industrial IoT Network Edges with Real-Time Adaptive Wavelet Graphs. 2018 IEEE First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Engineering (AIKE). :179–188.
Challenges associated with developing analytics solutions at the edge of large scale Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) networks close to where data is being generated in most cases involves developing analytics solutions from ground up. However, this approach increases IoT development costs and system complexities, delay time to market, and ultimately lowers competitive advantages associated with delivering next-generation IoT designs. To overcome these challenges, existing, widely available, hardware can be utilized to successfully participate in distributed edge computing for IIoT systems. In this paper, an osmotic computing approach is used to illustrate how distributed osmotic computing and existing low-cost hardware may be utilized to solve complex, compute-intensive Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) deep learning problem from the edge, through the fog, to the network cloud layer of IIoT systems. At the edge layer, the C28x digital signal processor (DSP), an existing low-cost, embedded, real-time DSP that has very wide deployment and integration in several IoT industries is used as a case study for constructing real-time graph-based Coiflet wavelets that could be used for several analytic applications including deep learning pre-processing applications at the edge and fog layers of IIoT networks. Our implementation is the first known application of the fixed-point C28x DSP to construct Coiflet wavelets. Coiflet Wavelets are constructed in the form of an osmotic microservice, using embedded low-level machine language to program the C28x at the network edge. With the graph-based approach, it is shown that an entire Coiflet wavelet distribution could be generated from only one wavelet stored in the C28x based edge device, and this could lead to significant savings in memory at the edge of IoT networks. Pearson correlation coefficient is used to select an edge generated Coiflet wavelet and the selected wavelet is used at the fog layer for pre-processing and denoising IIoT data to improve data quality for fog layer based deep learning application. Parameters for implementing deep learning at the fog layer using LSTM networks have been determined in the cloud. For XAI, communication network noise is shown to have significant impact on results of predictive deep learning at IIoT network fog layer.
Øye, Marius Mølnvik, Yang, Bian.  2021.  Privacy Modelling in Contact Tracing. 2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :1279—1282.
Contact tracing is a particularly important part of health care and is often overlooked or forgotten up until right when it is needed the most. With the wave of technological achievements in the last decade, a digital perspective for aid in contact tracing was a natural development from traditional contact tracing. When COVID-19 was categorized as a pandemic, the need for modernized contact tracing solutions became apparent, and highly sought after. Solutions using the Bluetooth protocol and/or Global Positioning System data (GPS) were hastily made available to the public in nations all over the world. These solutions quickly became criticized by privacy experts as being potential tools for tracking.
Oya, Simon, Troncoso, Carmela, Pèrez-Gonzàlez, Fernando.  2019.  Rethinking Location Privacy for Unknown Mobility Behaviors. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :416–431.
Location Privacy-Preserving Mechanisms (LPPMs) in the literature largely consider that users' data available for training wholly characterizes their mobility patterns. Thus, they hardwire this information in their designs and evaluate their privacy properties with these same data. In this paper, we aim to understand the impact of this decision on the level of privacy these LPPMs may offer in real life when the users' mobility data may be different from the data used in the design phase. Our results show that, in many cases, training data does not capture users' behavior accurately and, thus, the level of privacy provided by the LPPM is often overestimated. To address this gap between theory and practice, we propose to use blank-slate models for LPPM design. Contrary to the hardwired approach, that assumes known users' behavior, blank-slate models learn the users' behavior from the queries to the service provider. We leverage this blank-slate approach to develop a new family of LPPMs, that we call Profile Estimation-Based LPPMs. Using real data, we empirically show that our proposal outperforms optimal state-of-the-art mechanisms designed on sporadic hardwired models. On non-sporadic location privacy scenarios, our method is only better if the usage of the location privacy service is not continuous. It is our hope that eliminating the need to bootstrap the mechanisms with training data and ensuring that the mechanisms are lightweight and easy to compute help fostering the integration of location privacy protections in deployed systems.
Owoade, Ayoade Akeem, Osunmakinde, Isaac Olusegun.  2021.  Fault-tolerance to Cascaded Link Failures of Video Traffic on Attacked Wireless Networks. 2021 IST-Africa Conference (IST-Africa). :1–11.
Research has been conducted on wireless network single link failures. However, cascaded link failures due to fraudulent attacks have not received enough attention, whereas this requires solutions. This research developed an enhanced genetic algorithm (EGA) focused on capacity efficiency and fast restoration to rapidly resolve link-link failures. On complex nodes network, this fault-tolerant model was tested for such failures. Optimal alternative routes and the bandwidth required for quick rerouting of video traffic were generated by the proposed model. Increasing cascaded link failures increases bandwidth usage and causes transmission delay, which slows down video traffic routing. The proposed model outperformed popular Dijkstra models, in terms of time complexity. The survived solution paths demonstrate that the proposed model works well in maintaining connectivity despite cascaded link failures and would therefore be extremely useful in pandemic periods on emergency matters. The proposed technology is feasible for current business applications that require high-speed broadband networks.
Oweis, N.E., Owais, S.S., Alrababa, M.A., Alansari, M., Oweis, W.G..  2014.  A survey of Internet security risk over social networks. Computer Science and Information Technology (CSIT), 2014 6th International Conference on. :1-4.

The Communities vary from country to country. There are civil societies and rural communities, which also differ in terms of geography climate and economy. This shows that the use of social networks vary from region to region depending on the demographics of the communities. So, in this paper, we researched the most important problems of the Social Network, as well as the risk which is based on the human elements. We raised the problems of social networks in the transformation of societies to another affected by the global economy. The social networking integration needs to strengthen social ties that lead to the existence of these problems. For this we focused on the Internet security risks over the social networks. And study on Risk Management, and then look at resolving various problems that occur from the use of social networks.

Overgaard, Jacob E. F., Hertel, Jens Christian, Pejtersen, Jens, Knott, Arnold.  2018.  Application Specific Integrated Gate-Drive Circuit for Driving Self-Oscillating Gallium Nitride Logic-Level Power Transistors. 2018 IEEE Nordic Circuits and Systems Conference (NORCAS): NORCHIP and International Symposium of System-on-Chip (SoC). :1—6.
Wide bandgap power semiconductors are key enablers for increasing the power density of switch-mode power supplies. However, they require new gate drive technologies. This paper examines and characterizes a fabricated gate-driver in a class-E resonant inverter. The gate-driver's total area of 1.2mm2 includes two high-voltage transistors for gate-driving, integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) gate-drivers, high-speed floating level-shifter and reset circuitry. A prototype printed circuit board (PCB) was designed to assess the implications of an electrostatic discharge (ESD) diode, its parasitic capacitance and package bondwire connections. The parasitic capacitance was estimated using its discharge time from an initial voltage and the capacitance is 56.7 pF. Both bondwires and the diode's parasitic capacitance is neglegible. The gate-driver's functional behaviour is validated using a parallel LC resonant tank resembling a self-oscillating gate-drive. Measurements and simulations show the ESD diode clamps the output voltage to a minimum of -2V.
Overbye, T. J., Mao, Z., Shetye, K. S., Weber, J. D..  2017.  An interactive, extensible environment for power system simulation on the PMU time frame with a cyber security application. 2017 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference (TPEC). :1–6.

Power system simulation environments with appropriate time-fidelity are needed to enable rapid testing of new smart grid technologies and for coupled simulations of the underlying cyber infrastructure. This paper presents such an environment which operates with power system models in the PMU time frame, including data visualization and interactive control action capabilities. The flexible and extensible capabilities are demonstrated by interfacing with a cyber infrastructure simulation.

Ouyang, Yuankai, Li, Beibei, Kong, Qinglei, Song, Han, Li, Tao.  2021.  FS-IDS: A Novel Few-Shot Learning Based Intrusion Detection System for SCADA Networks. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1—6.

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks provide high situational awareness and automation control for industrial control systems, whilst introducing a wide range of access points for cyber attackers. To address these issues, a line of machine learning or deep learning based intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have been presented in the literature, where a large number of attack examples are usually demanded. However, in real-world SCADA networks, attack examples are not always sufficient, having only a few shots in many cases. In this paper, we propose a novel few-shot learning based IDS, named FS-IDS, to detect cyber attacks against SCADA networks, especially when having only a few attack examples in the defenders’ hands. Specifically, a new method by orchestrating one-hot encoding and principal component analysis is developed, to preprocess SCADA datasets containing sufficient examples for frequent cyber attacks. Then, a few-shot learning based preliminary IDS model is designed and trained using the preprocessed data. Last, a complete FS-IDS model for SCADA networks is established by further training the preliminary IDS model with a few examples for cyber attacks of interest. The high effectiveness of the proposed FS-IDS, in detecting cyber attacks against SCADA networks with only a few examples, is demonstrated by extensive experiments on a real SCADA dataset.

Ouyang, Tinghui, Marco, Vicent Sanz, Isobe, Yoshinao, Asoh, Hideki, Oiwa, Yutaka, Seo, Yoshiki.  2021.  Corner Case Data Description and Detection. 2021 IEEE/ACM 1st Workshop on AI Engineering - Software Engineering for AI (WAIN). :19–26.
As the major factors affecting the safety of deep learning models, corner cases and related detection are crucial in AI quality assurance for constructing safety- and security-critical systems. The generic corner case researches involve two interesting topics. One is to enhance DL models' robustness to corner case data via the adjustment on parameters/structure. The other is to generate new corner cases for model retraining and improvement. However, the complex architecture and the huge amount of parameters make the robust adjustment of DL models not easy, meanwhile it is not possible to generate all real-world corner cases for DL training. Therefore, this paper proposes a simple and novel approach aiming at corner case data detection via a specific metric. This metric is developed on surprise adequacy (SA) which has advantages on capture data behaviors. Furthermore, targeting at characteristics of corner case data, three modifications on distanced-based SA are developed for classification applications in this paper. Consequently, through the experiment analysis on MNIST data and industrial data, the feasibility and usefulness of the proposed method on corner case data detection are verified.
Ouyang, Deqiang, Shao, Jie, Zhang, Yonghui, Yang, Yang, Shen, Heng Tao.  2018.  Video-Based Person Re-Identification via Self-Paced Learning and Deep Reinforcement Learning Framework. Proceedings of the 26th ACM International Conference on Multimedia. :1562–1570.

Person re-identification is an important task in video surveillance, focusing on finding the same person across different cameras. However, most existing methods of video-based person re-identification still have some limitations (e.g., the lack of effective deep learning framework, the robustness of the model, and the same treatment for all video frames) which make them unable to achieve better recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a novel self-paced learning algorithm for video-based person re-identification, which could gradually learn from simple to complex samples for a mature and stable model. Self-paced learning is employed to enhance video-based person re-identification based on deep neural network, so that deep neural network and self-paced learning are unified into one frame. Then, based on the trained self-paced learning, we propose to employ deep reinforcement learning to discard misleading and confounding frames and find the most representative frames from video pairs. With the advantage of deep reinforcement learning, our method can learn strategies to select the optimal frame groups. Experiments show that the proposed framework outperforms the existing methods on the iLIDS-VID, PRID-2011 and MARS datasets.

Oulaaffart, Mohamed, Badonnel, Remi, Bianco, Christophe.  2022.  An Automated SMT-based Security Framework for Supporting Migrations in Cloud Composite Services. NOMS 2022-2022 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1–9.
The growing maturity of orchestration languages is contributing to the elaboration of cloud composite services, whose resources may be deployed over different distributed infrastructures. These composite services are subject to changes over time, that are typically required to support cloud properties, such as scalability and rapid elasticity. In particular, the migration of their elementary resources may be triggered by performance constraints. However, changes induced by this migration may introduce vulnerabilities that may compromise the resources, or even the whole cloud service. In that context, we propose an automated SMT1-based security framework for supporting the migration of resources in cloud composite services, and preventing the occurrence of new configuration vulnerabilities. We formalize the underlying security automation based on SMT solving, in order to assess the migrated resources and select adequate counter-measures, considering both endogenous and exogenous security mechanisms. We then evaluate its benefits and limits through large series of experiments based on a proof-of-concept prototype implemented over the CVC4 commonly-used open-source solver. These experiments show a minimal overhead with regular operating systems deployed in cloud environments.
Oujezsky, Vaclav, Chapcak, David, Horvath, Tomas, Munster, Petr.  2019.  Security Testing Of Active Optical Network Devices. 2019 42nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :9—13.

This article presents results and overview of conducted testing of active optical network devices. The base for the testing is originating in Kali Linux and penetration testing generally. The goal of tests is to either confirm or disprove a vulnerability of devices used in the tested polygon. The first part deals with general overview and topology of testing devices, the next part is dedicated to active and passive exploration and exploits. The last part provides a summary of the results.