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P, Rahoof P., Nair, L. R., P, Thafasal Ijyas V..  2017.  Trust Structure in Public Key Infrastructures. 2017 2nd International Conference on Anti-Cyber Crimes (ICACC). :223–227.

Recently perceived vulnerabilities in public key infrastructures (PKI) demand that a semantic or cognitive definition of trust is essential for augmenting the security through trust formulations. In this paper, we examine the meaning of trust in PKIs. Properly categorized trust can help in developing intelligent algorithms that can adapt to the security and privacy requirements of the clients. We delineate the different types of trust in a generic PKI model.

P. Dahake, S. Nimbhorkar.  2015.  "Hybrid cryptosystem for maintaining image integrity using biometric fingerprint". 2015 International Conference on Pervasive Computing (ICPC). :1-5.

Integrity of image data plays an important role in data communication. Image data contain confidential information so it is very important to protect data from intruder. When data is transmitted through the network, there may be possibility that data may be get lost or damaged. Existing system does not provide all functionality for securing image during transmission. i.e image compression, encryption and user authentication. In this paper hybrid cryptosystem is proposed in which biometric fingerprint is used for key generation which is further useful for encryption purpose. Secret fragment visible mosaic image method is used for secure transmission of image. For reducing the size of image lossless compression technique is used which leads to the fast transmission of image data through transmission channel. The biometric fingerprint is useful for authentication purpose. Biometric method is more secure method of authentication because it requires physical presence of human being and it is untraceable.

P. Das, S. C. Kushwaha, M. Chakraborty.  2015.  "Multiple embedding secret key image steganography using LSB substitution and Arnold Transform". 2015 2nd International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS). :845-849.

Cryptography and steganography are the two major fields available for data security. While cryptography is a technique in which the information is scrambled in an unintelligent gibberish fashion during transmission, steganography focuses on concealing the existence of the information. Combining both domains gives a higher level of security in which even if the use of covert channel is revealed, the true information will not be exposed. This paper focuses on concealing multiple secret images in a single 24-bit cover image using LSB substitution based image steganography. Each secret image is encrypted before hiding in the cover image using Arnold Transform. Results reveal that the proposed method successfully secures the high capacity data keeping the visual quality of transmitted image satisfactory.

P. Hu, H. Li, H. Fu, D. Cansever, P. Mohapatra.  2015.  "Dynamic defense strategy against advanced persistent threat with insiders". 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM). :747-755.

The landscape of cyber security has been reformed dramatically by the recently emerging Advanced Persistent Threat (APT). It is uniquely featured by the stealthy, continuous, sophisticated and well-funded attack process for long-term malicious gain, which render the current defense mechanisms inapplicable. A novel design of defense strategy, continuously combating APT in a long time-span with imperfect/incomplete information on attacker's actions, is urgently needed. The challenge is even more escalated when APT is coupled with the insider threat (a major threat in cyber-security), where insiders could trade valuable information to APT attacker for monetary gains. The interplay among the defender, APT attacker and insiders should be judiciously studied to shed insights on a more secure defense system. In this paper, we consider the joint threats from APT attacker and the insiders, and characterize the fore-mentioned interplay as a two-layer game model, i.e., a defense/attack game between defender and APT attacker and an information-trading game among insiders. Through rigorous analysis, we identify the best response strategies for each player and prove the existence of Nash Equilibrium for both games. Extensive numerical study further verifies our analytic results and examines the impact of different system configurations on the achievable security level.

P. Jain, S. Nandanwar.  2015.  "Securing the Clustered Database Using Data Modification Technique". 2015 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). :1163-1166.

The new era of information communication and technology (ICT), everyone wants to store/share their Data or information in online media, like in cloud database, mobile database, grid database, drives etc. When the data is stored in online media the main problem is arises related to data is privacy because different types of hacker, attacker or crackers wants to disclose their private information as publically. Security is a continuous process of protecting the data or information from attacks. For securing that information from those kinds of unauthorized people we proposed and implement of one the technique based on the data modification concept with taking the iris database on weka tool. And this paper provides the high privacy in distributed clustered database environments.

P.G., Swathi, Rajesh, Sreeja.  2018.  Double Encryption Using TEA and DNA. 2018 International Conference on Circuits and Systems in Digital Enterprise Technology (ICCSDET). :1-5.
Information security has become a major challenge in data transmission. Data transmitted through the network is vulnerable to many passive and active attacks. Cryptographic algorithms provide security against the data intruders and provide secure network communication. In this method, two algorithms TEA and DNA are combined to form a new algorithm called DETD (Double Encryption using TEA and DNA). The algorithm mainly deals with encryption and decryption time of a given input text. Here, both the encryption and decryption time are compared with the other two algorithms and the results are recorded. This algorithm also aims to provide data security by increasing the levels of encryption.
Pacheco, J., Zhu, X., Badr, Y., Hariri, S..  2017.  Enabling Risk Management for Smart Infrastructures with an Anomaly Behavior Analysis Intrusion Detection System. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W). :324–328.

The Internet of Things (IoT) connects not only computers and mobile devices, but it also interconnects smart buildings, homes, and cities, as well as electrical grids, gas, and water networks, automobiles, airplanes, etc. However, IoT applications introduce grand security challenges due to the increase in the attack surface. Current security approaches do not handle cybersecurity from a holistic point of view; hence a systematic cybersecurity mechanism needs to be adopted when designing IoTbased applications. In this work, we present a risk management framework to deploy secure IoT-based applications for Smart Infrastructures at the design time and the runtime. At the design time, we propose a risk management method that is appropriate for smart infrastructures. At the design time, our framework relies on the Anomaly Behavior Analysis (ABA) methodology enabled by the Autonomic Computing paradigm and an intrusion detection system to detect any threat that can compromise IoT infrastructures by. Our preliminary experimental results show that our framework can be used to detect threats and protect IoT premises and services.

Padekar, Hitesh, Park, Younghee, Hu, Hongxin, Chang, Sang-Yoon.  2016.  Enabling Dynamic Access Control for Controller Applications in Software-Defined Networks. Proceedings of the 21st ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :51–61.

Recent findings have shown that network and system attacks in Software-Defined Networks (SDNs) have been caused by malicious network applications that misuse APIs in an SDN controller. Such attacks can both crash the controller and change the internal data structure in the controller, causing serious damage to the infrastructure of SDN-based networks. To address this critical security issue, we introduce a security framework called AEGIS to prevent controller APIs from being misused by malicious network applications. Through the run-time verification of API calls, AEGIS performs a fine-grained access control for important controller APIs that can be misused by malicious applications. The usage of API calls is verified in real time by sophisticated security access rules that are defined based on the relationships between applications and data in the SDN controller. We also present a prototypical implementation of AEGIS and demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency by performing six different controller attacks including new attacks we have recently discovered.

Padmanaban, R., Thirumaran, M., Sanjana, Victoria, Moshika, A..  2019.  Security Analytics For Heterogeneous Web. 2019 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1–6.

In recent days, Enterprises are expanding their business efficiently through web applications which has paved the way for building good consumer relationship with its customers. The major threat faced by these enterprises is their inability to provide secure environments as the web applications are prone to severe vulnerabilities. As a result of this, many security standards and tools have been evolving to handle the vulnerabilities. Though there are many vulnerability detection tools available in the present, they do not provide sufficient information on the attack. For the long-term functioning of an organization, data along with efficient analytics on the vulnerabilities is required to enhance its reliability. The proposed model thus aims to make use of Machine Learning with Analytics to solve the problem in hand. Hence, the sequence of the attack is detected through the pattern using PAA and further the detected vulnerabilities are classified using Machine Learning technique such as SVM. Probabilistic results are provided in order to obtain numerical data sets which could be used for obtaining a report on user and application behavior. Dynamic and Reconfigurable PAA with SVM Classifier is a challenging task to analyze the vulnerabilities and impact of these vulnerabilities in heterogeneous web environment. This will enhance the former processing by analysis of the origin and the pattern of the attack in a more effective manner. Hence, the proposed system is designed to perform detection of attacks. The system works on the mitigation and prevention as part of the attack prediction.

Padmashree, M G, Arunalatha, J S, Venugopal, K R.  2019.  HSSM: High Speed Split Multiplier for Elliptic Curve Cryptography in IoT. 2019 Fifteenth International Conference on Information Processing (ICINPRO). :1—5.

Security of data in the Internet of Things (IoT) deals with Encryption to provide a stable secure system. The IoT device possess a constrained Main Memory and Secondary Memory that mandates the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptographic (ECC) scheme. The Scalar Multiplication has a great impact on the ECC implementations in reducing the Computation and Space Complexity, thereby enhancing the performance of an IoT System providing high Security and Privacy. The proposed High Speed Split Multiplier (HSSM) for ECC in IoT is a lightweight Multiplication technique that uses Split Multiplication with Pseudo-Mersenne Prime Number and Montgomery Curve to withstand the Power Analysis Attack. The proposed algorithm reduces the Computation Time and the Space Complexity of the Cryptographic operations in terms of Clock cycles and RAM when compared with Liu et al.,’s multiplication algorithms [1].

Padmashree, M G, Khanum, Shahela, Arunalatha, J S, Venugopal, K R.  2019.  SIRLC: Secure Information Retrieval using Lightweight Cryptography in HIoT. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :269–273.

Advances in new Communication and Information innovations has led to a new paradigm known as Internet of Things (IoT). Healthcare environment uses IoT technologies for Patients care which can be used in various medical applications. Patient information is encrypted consistently to maintain the access of therapeutic records by authoritative entities. Healthcare Internet of Things (HIoT) facilitate the access of Patient files immediately in emergency situations. In the proposed system, the Patient directly provides the Key to the Doctor in normal care access. In Emergency care, a Patient shares an Attribute based Key with a set of Emergency Supporting Representatives (ESRs) and access permission to the Doctor for utilizing Emergency key from ESR. The Doctor decrypts the medical records by using Attribute based key and Emergency key to save the Patient's life. The proposed model Secure Information Retrieval using Lightweight Cryptography (SIRLC) reduces the secret key generation time and cipher text size. The performance evaluation indicates that SIRLC is a better option to utilize in Healthcare IoT than Lightweight Break-glass Access Control(LiBAC) with enhanced security and reduced computational complexity.

Padon, Oded, Immerman, Neil, Shoham, Sharon, Karbyshev, Aleksandr, Sagiv, Mooly.  2016.  Decidability of Inferring Inductive Invariants. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. :217–231.

Induction is a successful approach for verification of hardware and software systems. A common practice is to model a system using logical formulas, and then use a decision procedure to verify that some logical formula is an inductive safety invariant for the system. A key ingredient in this approach is coming up with the inductive invariant, which is known as invariant inference. This is a major difficulty, and it is often left for humans or addressed by sound but incomplete abstract interpretation. This paper is motivated by the problem of inductive invariants in shape analysis and in distributed protocols. This paper approaches the general problem of inferring first-order inductive invariants by restricting the language L of candidate invariants. Notice that the problem of invariant inference in a restricted language L differs from the safety problem, since a system may be safe and still not have any inductive invariant in L that proves safety. Clearly, if L is finite (and if testing an inductive invariant is decidable), then inferring invariants in L is decidable. This paper presents some interesting cases when inferring inductive invariants in L is decidable even when L is an infinite language of universal formulas. Decidability is obtained by restricting L and defining a suitable well-quasi-order on the state space. We also present some undecidability results that show that our restrictions are necessary. We further present a framework for systematically constructing infinite languages while keeping the invariant inference problem decidable. We illustrate our approach by showing the decidability of inferring invariants for programs manipulating linked-lists, and for distributed protocols.

Padon, Oded.  2018.  Deductive Verification of Distributed Protocols in First-Order Logic. 2018 Formal Methods in Computer Aided Design (FMCAD). :1-1.

Formal verification of infinite-state systems, and distributed systems in particular, is a long standing research goal. In the deductive verification approach, the programmer provides inductive invariants and pre/post specifications of procedures, reducing the verification problem to checking validity of logical verification conditions. This check is often performed by automated theorem provers and SMT solvers, substantially increasing productivity in the verification of complex systems. However, the unpredictability of automated provers presents a major hurdle to usability of these tools. This problem is particularly acute in case of provers that handle undecidable logics, for example, first-order logic with quantifiers and theories such as arithmetic. The resulting extreme sensitivity to minor changes has a strong negative impact on the convergence of the overall proof effort.

Page, Adam, Attaran, Nasrin, Shea, Colin, Homayoun, Houman, Mohsenin, Tinoosh.  2016.  Low-Power Manycore Accelerator for Personalized Biomedical Applications. Proceedings of the 26th Edition on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI. :63–68.

Wearable personal health monitoring systems can offer a cost effective solution for human healthcare. These systems must provide both highly accurate, secured and quick processing and delivery of vast amount of data. In addition, wearable biomedical devices are used in inpatient, outpatient, and at home e-Patient care that must constantly monitor the patient's biomedical and physiological signals 24/7. These biomedical applications require sampling and processing multiple streams of physiological signals with strict power and area footprint. The processing typically consists of feature extraction, data fusion, and classification stages that require a large number of digital signal processing and machine learning kernels. In response to these requirements, in this paper, a low-power, domain-specific many-core accelerator named Power Efficient Nano Clusters (PENC) is proposed to map and execute the kernels of these applications. Experimental results show that the manycore is able to reduce energy consumption by up to 80% and 14% for DSP and machine learning kernels, respectively, when optimally parallelized. The performance of the proposed PENC manycore when acting as a coprocessor to an Intel Atom processor is compared with existing commercial off-the-shelf embedded processing platforms including Intel Atom, Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, and NVIDIA TK1 ARM-A15 with GPU SoC. The results show that the PENC manycore architecture reduces the energy by as much as 10X while outperforming all off-the-shelf embedded processing platforms across all studied machine learning classifiers.

Paharia, B., Bhushan, K..  2018.  Fog Computing as a Defensive Approach Against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS): A Proposed Architecture. 2018 9th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–7.
Cloud computing is a long-established technique which deals with storage and processing of information. In cloud computing, any user is liable to pay and demand according to its particular needs. Due to various limitations of cloud computing like higher latency and more bandwidth consumptions for transmitted information, the origination of Fog computing was essential. Fog computing inherits all the advantages of cloud computing, and also brings computing at the network's edge. In addition, security is a very serious concern for cloud computing. In this paper, fog computing is used as a defensive approach from the day-to-day increasing security threats particularly DDoS attacks in cloud computing. Here an architecture has been proposed to obstruct the malicious traffic generated by the DDoS attack from user to the cloud by utilizing the benefits of fog computing. Fog functions as a filtering layer for the traffic generated and is placed between user and cloud. This paper primarily works to improve the overall performance of the network and enhances reduction in the traffic forwarded to the cloud.
Pahariya, Parth, Singh, Sanjay Kumar.  2018.  Fingerprint Authentication Using LT Codes. Proceedings of the 2018 2Nd International Conference on Biometric Engineering and Applications. :38-42.

Biometric is used for identifying the person based on their traits. Fingerprint is one of the most important and most used biometric trait for person authentication. Fingerprint database must be stored in efficient way and in most secure way so that it is unable to hack by the hacker and it will be able to recognize the person fast in large database. In this paper, we proposed an efficient way of storing the fingerprint data for fast recognition. We are using LT codes for storing the x coordinates of minutiae points and fingerprint images is stored in encrypted form with the coordinates. We are using on-the-y gaussian algorithm for decoding the x coordinates and calculate the value for finding similarity in between two fingerprints.

Pahl, Marc-Oliver, Liebald, Stefan.  2019.  Information-Centric IoT Middleware Overlay: VSL. 2019 International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys). :1–8.
The heart of the Internet of Things (IoT) is data. IoT services processes data from sensors that interface their physical surroundings, and from other software such as Internet weather databases. They produce data to control physical environments via actuators, and offer data to other services. More recently, service-centric designs for managing the IoT have been proposed. Data-centric or name-based communication architectures complement these developments very well. Especially for edge-based or site-local installations, data-centric Internet architectures can be implemented already today, as they do not require any changes at the core. We present the Virtual State Layer (VSL), a site-local data-centric architecture for the IoT. Special features of our solution are full separation of logic and data in IoT services, offering the data-centric VSL interface directly to developers, which significantly reduces the overall system complexity, explicit data modeling, a semantically-rich data item lookup, stream connections between services, and security-by-design. We evaluate our solution regarding usability, performance, scalability, resilience, energy efficiency, and security.
Paik, Joon-Young, Choi, Joong-Hyun, Jin, Rize, Wang, Jianming, Cho, Eun-Sun.  2018.  A Storage-level Detection Mechanism Against Crypto-Ransomware. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :2258–2260.
Ransomware represents a significant threat to both individuals and organizations. Moreover, the emergence of ransomware that exploits kernel vulnerabilities poses a serious detection challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel ransomware detection mechanism at a storage device, especially a flash-based storage device. To this end, we design a new buffer management policy that allows our detector to identify ransomware behaviors. Our mechanism detects a realistic ransomware sample with little negative impacts on the hit ratios of the buffers internally located in a storage device.
Paiker, N., Ding, X., Curtmola, R., Borcea, C..  2018.  Context-Aware File Discovery System for Distributed Mobile-Cloud Apps. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom). :198–203.
Recent research has proposed middleware to enable efficient distributed apps over mobile-cloud platforms. This paper presents a Context-Aware File Discovery Service (CAFDS) that allows distributed mobile-cloud applications to find and access files of interest shared by collaborating users. CAFDS enables programmers to search for files defined by context and content features, such as location, creation time, or the presence of certain object types within an image file. CAFDS provides low-latency through a cloud-based metadata server, which uses a decision tree to locate the nearest files that satisfy the context and content features requested by applications. We implemented CAFDS in Android and Linux. Experimental results show CAFDS achieves substantially lower latency than peer-to-peer solutions that cannot leverage context information.
Paira, Smita, Chandra, Sourabh, Alam, Sk Safikul.  2016.  Segmented Crypto Algorithm. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies. :116:1–116:5.
With the emerging Science and Technology, network security has become a major concern. Researchers have proposed new theories and applications to eradicate the unethical access to the secret message. This paper presents a new algorithm on Symmetric Key Cryptography. The algorithm comprises of a bitwise shifting operation, folding logic along with simple mathematical operations. The fundamental security of the algorithm lies in the dual-layered encryption and decryption processes which divide the entire method into various phases. The algorithm implements a ciphered array key which itself hides the actual secret key to increase the integrity of the cryptosystem. The algorithm has been experimentally tested and the test results are promising.
Pajic, M., Weimer, J., Bezzo, N., Tabuada, P., Sokolsky, O., Insup Lee, Pappas, G.J..  2014.  Robustness of attack-resilient state estimators. Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS), 2014 ACM/IEEE International Conference on. :163-174.

The interaction between information technology and phys ical world makes Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) vulnerable to malicious attacks beyond the standard cyber attacks. This has motivated the need for attack-resilient state estimation. Yet, the existing state-estimators are based on the non-realistic assumption that the exact system model is known. Consequently, in this work we present a method for state estimation in presence of attacks, for systems with noise and modeling errors. When the the estimated states are used by a state-based feedback controller, we show that the attacker cannot destabilize the system by exploiting the difference between the model used for the state estimation and the real physical dynamics of the system. Furthermore, we describe how implementation issues such as jitter, latency and synchronization errors can be mapped into parameters of the state estimation procedure that describe modeling errors, and provide a bound on the state-estimation error caused by modeling errors. This enables mapping control performance requirements into real-time (i.e., timing related) specifications imposed on the underlying platform. Finally, we illustrate and experimentally evaluate this approach on an unmanned ground vehicle case-study.

Pajola, Luca, Pasa, Luca, Conti, Mauro.  2019.  Threat Is in the Air: Machine Learning for Wireless Network Applications. Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Wireless Security and Machine Learning. :16–21.

With the spread of wireless application, huge amount of data is generated every day. Thanks to its elasticity, machine learning is becoming a fundamental brick in this field, and many of applications are developed with the use of it and the several techniques that it offers. However, machine learning suffers on different problems and people that use it often are not aware of the possible threats. Often, an adversary tries to exploit these vulnerabilities in order to obtain benefits; because of this, adversarial machine learning is becoming wide studied in the scientific community. In this paper, we show state-of-the-art adversarial techniques and possible countermeasures, with the aim of warning people regarding sensible argument related to the machine learning.

Pak, W., Choi, Y. J..  2017.  High Performance and High Scalable Packet Classification Algorithm for Network Security Systems. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 14:37–49.

Packet classification is a core function in network and security systems; hence, hardware-based solutions, such as packet classification accelerator chips or Ternary Content Addressable Memory (T-CAM), have been widely adopted for high-performance systems. With the rapid improvement of general hardware architectures and growing popularity of multi-core multi-threaded processors, software-based packet classification algorithms are attracting considerable attention, owing to their high flexibility in satisfying various industrial requirements for security and network systems. For high classification speed, these algorithms internally use large tables, whose size increases exponentially with the ruleset size; consequently, they cannot be used with a large rulesets. To overcome this problem, we propose a new software-based packet classification algorithm that simultaneously supports high scalability and fast classification performance by merging partition decision trees in a search table. While most partitioning-based packet classification algorithms show good scalability at the cost of low classification speed, our algorithm shows very high classification speed, irrespective of the number of rules, with small tables and short table building time. Our test results confirm that the proposed algorithm enables network and security systems to support heavy traffic in the most effective manner.

Pal, Manjish, Sahu, Prashant, Jaiswal, Shailesh.  2018.  LevelTree: A New Scalable Data Center Networks Topology. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking (ICACCCN). :482-486.

In recent time it has become very crucial for the data center networks (DCN) to broaden the system limit to be able to meet with the increasing need of cloud based applications. A decent DCN topology must comprise of numerous properties for low diameter, high bisection bandwidth, ease of organization and so on. In addition, a DCN topology should depict aptness in failure resiliency, scalability, construction and routing. In this paper, we introduce a new Data Center Network topology termed LevelTree built up with several modules grows as a tree topology and each module is constructed from a complete graph. LevelTree demonstrates great topological properties and it beats critical topologies like Jellyfish, VolvoxDC, and Fattree regarding providing a superior worthwhile plan with greater capacity.

Pal, Partha, Soule, Nathaniel, Lageman, Nate, Clark, Shane S., Carvalho, Marco, Granados, Adrian, Alves, Anthony.  2017.  Adaptive Resource Management Enabling Deception (ARMED). Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :52:1–52:8.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks routinely disrupt access to critical services. Mitigation of these attacks often relies on planned over-provisioning or elastic provisioning of resources, and third-party monitoring, analysis, and scrubbing of network traffic. While volumetric attacks which saturate a victim's network are most common, non-volumetric, low and slow, DDoS attacks can achieve their goals without requiring high traffic volume by targeting vulnerable network protocols or protocol implementations. Non-volumetric attacks, unlike their noisy counterparts, require more sophisticated detection mechanisms, and typically have only post-facto and targeted protocol/application mitigations. In this paper, we introduce our work under the Adaptive Resource Management Enabling Deception (ARMED) effort, which is developing a network-level approach to automatically mitigate sophisticated DDoS attacks through deception-focused adaptive maneuvering. We describe the concept, implementation, and initial evaluation of the ARMED Network Actors (ANAs) that facilitate transparent interception, sensing, analysis, and mounting of adaptive responses that can disrupt the adversary's decision process.