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Q. Wang, Y. Ren, M. Scaperoth, G. Parmer.  2015.  "SPeCK: a kernel for scalable predictability". 21st IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium. :121-132.

Multi- and many-core systems are increasingly prevalent in embedded systems. Additionally, isolation requirements between different partitions and criticalities are gaining in importance. This difficult combination is not well addressed by current software systems. Parallel systems require consistency guarantees on shared data-structures often provided by locks that use predictable resource sharing protocols. However, as the number of cores increase, even a single shared cache-line (e.g. for the lock) can cause significant interference. In this paper, we present a clean-slate design of the SPeCK kernel, the next generation of our COMPOSITE OS, that attempts to provide a strong version of scalable predictability - where predictability bounds made on a single core, remain constant with an increase in cores. Results show that, despite using a non-preemptive kernel, it has strong scalable predictability, low average-case overheads, and demonstrates better response-times than a state-of-the-art preemptive system.

Qader, Karwan, Adda, Mo.  2019.  DOS and Brute Force Attacks Faults Detection Using an Optimised Fuzzy C-Means. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA). :1—6.
This paper explains how the commonly occurring DOS and Brute Force attacks on computer networks can be efficiently detected and network performance improved, which reduces costs and time. Therefore, network administrators attempt to instantly diagnose any network issues. The experimental work used the SNMP-MIB parameter datasets, which are collected via a specialised MIB dataset consisting of seven types of attack as noted in section three. To resolves such issues, this researched carried out several important contributions which are related to fault management concerns in computer network systems. A central task in the detection of the attacks relies on MIB feature behaviours using the suggested SFCM method. It was concluded that the DOS and Brute Force fault detection results for three different clustering methods demonstrated that the proposed SFCM detected every data point in the related group. Consequently, the FPC approached 1.0, its highest record, and an improved performance solution better than the EM methods and K-means are based on SNMP-MIB variables.
Qadir, Abdalbasit Mohammed, Cooper, Peter.  2020.  GPS-based Mobile Cross-platform Cargo Tracking System with Web-based Application. 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—7.
Cross-platform development is becoming widely used by developers, and writing for separate platforms is being replaced by developing a single code base that will work across multiple platforms simultaneously, while reducing cost and time. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate cross-platform development by creating a cargo tracking system that will work on multiple platforms with web application by tracking cargo using Global Positioning System (GPS), since the transport business has played a vital role in the evolution of human civilization. In this system, Google Flutter technology is used to create a mobile application that works on both Android and iOS platforms at the same time, by providing maps to clients showing their cargo location using Google Map API, as well as providing a web-based application.
Qadir, J., Hasan, O..  2015.  Applying Formal Methods to Networking: Theory, Techniques, and Applications. Communications Surveys Tutorials, IEEE. 17:256-291.

Despite its great importance, modern network infrastructure is remarkable for the lack of rigor in its engineering. The Internet, which began as a research experiment, was never designed to handle the users and applications it hosts today. The lack of formalization of the Internet architecture meant limited abstractions and modularity, particularly for the control and management planes, thus requiring for every new need a new protocol built from scratch. This led to an unwieldy ossified Internet architecture resistant to any attempts at formal verification and to an Internet culture where expediency and pragmatism are favored over formal correctness. Fortunately, recent work in the space of clean slate Internet design-in particular, the software defined networking (SDN) paradigm-offers the Internet community another chance to develop the right kind of architecture and abstractions. This has also led to a great resurgence in interest of applying formal methods to specification, verification, and synthesis of networking protocols and applications. In this paper, we present a self-contained tutorial of the formidable amount of work that has been done in formal methods and present a survey of its applications to networking.
 

Qawasmeh, Ethar, Al-Saleh, Mohammed I., Al-Sharif, Ziad A..  2019.  Towards a Generic Approach for Memory Forensics. 2019 Sixth HCT Information Technology Trends (ITT). :094—098.

The era of information technology has, unfortunately, contributed to the tremendous rise in the number of criminal activities. However, digital artifacts can be utilized in convicting cybercriminal and exposing their activities. The digital forensics science concerns about all aspects related to cybercrimes. It seeks digital evidence by following standard methodologies to be admitted in court rooms. This paper concerns about memory forensics for the unique artifacts it holds. Memory contains information about the current state of systems and applications. Moreover, an application's data explains how a criminal has been interacting the application just before the memory is acquired. Memory forensics at the application level is currently random and cumbersome. Targeting specific applications is what forensic researchers and practitioner are currently striving to provide. This paper suggests a general solution to investigate any application. Our solution aims to utilize an application's data structures and variables' information in the investigation process. This is because an application's data has to be stored and retrieved in the means of variables. Data structures and variables' information can be generated by compilers for debugging purposes. We show that an application's information is a valuable resource to the investigator.

Qayum, Mohammad A., Badawy, Abdel-Hameed A., Cook, Jeanine.  2017.  DyAdHyTM: A Low Overhead Dynamically Adaptive Hybrid Transactional Memory with Application to Large Graphs. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Memory Systems. :327–336.
Big data is a buzzword used to describe massive volumes of data that provides opportunities of exploring new insights through data analytics. However, big data is mostly structured but can be semi-structured or unstructured. It is normally so large that it is not only difficult but also slow to process using traditional computing systems. One of the solutions is to format the data as graph data structures and process them on shared memory architecture to use fast and novel policies such as transactional memory. In most graph applications in big data type problems such as bioinformatics, social networks, and cybersecurity, graphs are sparse in nature. Due to this sparsity, we have the opportunity to use Transactional Memory (TM) as the synchronization policy for critical sections to speedup applications. At low conflict probability TM performs better than most synchronization policies due to its inherent non-blocking characteristics. TM can be implemented in Software, Hardware or a combination of both. However, hardware TM implementations are fast but limited by scarce hardware resources while software implementations have high overheads which can degrade performance. In this paper, we develop a low overhead, yet simple, dynamically adaptive (i.e., at runtime) hybrid (i.e., combines hardware and software) TM (DyAd-HyTM) scheme that combines the best features of both Hardware TM (HTM) and Software TM (STM) while adapting to application's requirements. It performs better than coarse-grain lock by up to 8.12x, a low overhead STM by up to 2.68x, a couple of implementations of HTMs (by up to 2.59x), and other HyTMs (by up to 1.55x) for SSCA-2 graph benchmark running on a multicore machine with a large shared memory.
Qazi, Zafar Ayyub, Penumarthi, Phani Krishna, Sekar, Vyas, Gopalakrishnan, Vijay, Joshi, Kaustubh, Das, Samir R..  2016.  KLEIN: A Minimally Disruptive Design for an Elastic Cellular Core. Proceedings of the Symposium on SDN Research. :2:1–2:12.

Today's cellular core, which connects the radio access network to the Internet, relies on fixed hardware appliances placed at a few dedicated locations and uses relatively static routing policies. As such, today's core design has key limitations—it induces inefficient provisioning tradeoffs and is poorly equipped to handle overload, failure scenarios, and diverse application requirements. To address these limitations, ongoing efforts envision "clean slate" solutions that depart from cellular standards and routing protocols; e.g., via programmable switches at base stations and per-flow SDN-like orchestration. The driving question of this work is to ask if a clean-slate redesign is necessary and if not, how can we design a flexible cellular core that is minimally disruptive. We propose KLEIN, a design that stays within the confines of current cellular standards and addresses the above limitations by combining network functions virtualization with smart resource management. We address key challenges w.r.t. scalability and responsiveness in realizing KLEIN via backwards-compatible orchestration mechanisms. Our evaluations through data-driven simulations and real prototype experiments using OpenAirInterface show that KLEIN can scale to billions of devices and is close to optimal for wide variety of traffic and deployment parameters.

Qbeitah, M. A., Aldwairi, M..  2018.  Dynamic malware analysis of phishing emails. 2018 9th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS). :18–24.

Malicious software or malware is one of the most significant dangers facing the Internet today. In the fight against malware, users depend on anti-malware and anti-virus products to proactively detect threats before damage is done. Those products rely on static signatures obtained through malware analysis. Unfortunately, malware authors are always one step ahead in avoiding detection. This research deals with dynamic malware analysis, which emphasizes on: how the malware will behave after execution, what changes to the operating system, registry and network communication take place. Dynamic analysis opens up the doors for automatic generation of anomaly and active signatures based on the new malware's behavior. The research includes a design of honeypot to capture new malware and a complete dynamic analysis laboratory setting. We propose a standard analysis methodology by preparing the analysis tools, then running the malicious samples in a controlled environment to investigate their behavior. We analyze 173 recent Phishing emails and 45 SPIM messages in search for potentially new malwares, we present two malware samples and their comprehensive dynamic analysis.

Qi, Bolun, Fan, Chuchu, Jiang, Minghao, Mitra, Sayan.  2018.  DryVR 2.0: A Tool for Verification and Controller Synthesis of Black-box Cyber-physical Systems. Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (Part of CPS Week). :269–270.
We present a demo of DryVR 2.0, a framework for verification and controller synthesis of cyber-physical systems composed of black-box simulators and white-box automata. For verification, DryVR 2.0 takes as input a black-box simulator, a white-box transition graph, a time bound and a safety specification. As output it generates over-approximations of the reachable states and returns "Safe" if the system meets the given bounded safety specification, or it returns "Unsafe" with a counter-example. For controller synthesis, DryVR 2.0 takes as input black-box simulator(s) and a reach-avoid specification, and uses RRTs to find a transition graph such that the combined system satisfies the given specification.
Qi, C., Wu, J., Chen, H., Yu, H., Hu, H., Cheng, G..  2017.  Game-Theoretic Analysis for Security of Various Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Architectures. 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). :1–5.

Security evaluation of diverse SDN frameworks is of significant importance to design resilient systems and deal with attacks. Focused on SDN scenarios, a game-theoretic model is proposed to analyze their security performance in existing SDN architectures. The model can describe specific traits in different structures, represent several types of information of players (attacker and defender) and quantitatively calculate systems' reliability. Simulation results illustrate dynamic SDN structures have distinct security improvement over static ones. Besides, effective dynamic scheduling mechanisms adopted in dynamic systems can enhance their security further.

Qi, Jie, Cao, Zheng, Sun, Haixin.  2016.  An Effective Method for Underwater Target Radiation Signal Detecting and Reconstructing. Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. :48:1–48:2.

Using the sparse feature of the signal, compressed sensing theory can take a sample to compress data at a rate lower than the Nyquist sampling rate. The signal must be represented by the sparse matrix, however. Based on the above theory, this article puts forward a sparse degree of adaptive algorithms which can be used for the detection and reconstruction of the underwater target radiation signal. The received underwater target radiation signal, at first, transits the noise energy into signal energy under test by the stochastic resonance system, and then based on Gerschgorin disk criterion, it can make out the number of underwater target radiation signals in order to determine the optimal sparse degree of compressed sensing, and finally, the detection and reconstruction of the original signal can be realized by utilizing the compressed sensing technique. The simulation results show that this method can effectively detect underwater target radiation signals, and they can also be detected quite well under low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR).

Qi, L. T., Huang, H. P., Wang, P., Wang, R. C..  2018.  Abnormal Item Detection Based on Time Window Merging for Recommender Systems. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :252–259.

CFRS (Collaborative Filtering Recommendation System) is one of the most widely used individualized recommendation systems. However, CFRS is susceptible to shilling attacks based on profile injection. The current research on shilling attack mainly focuses on the recognition of false user profiles, but these methods depend on the specific attack models and the computational cost is huge. From the view of item, some abnormal item detection methods are proposed which are independent of attack models and overcome the defects of user profiles model, but its detection rate, false alarm rate and time overhead need to be further improved. In order to solve these problems, it proposes an abnormal item detection method based on time window merging. This method first uses the small window to partition rating time series, and determine whether the window is suspicious in terms of the number of abnormal ratings within it. Then, the suspicious small windows are merged to form suspicious intervals. We use the rating distribution characteristics RAR (Ratio of Abnormal Rating), ATIAR (Average Time Interval of Abnormal Rating), DAR(Deviation of Abnormal Rating) and DTIAR (Deviation of Time Interval of Abnormal Rating) in the suspicious intervals to determine whether the item is subject to attacks. Experiment results on the MovieLens 100K data set show that the method has a high detection rate and a low false alarm rate.

Qi, Ling, Qiao, Yuanyuan, Abdesslem, Fehmi Ben, Ma, Zhanyu, Yang, Jie.  2016.  Oscillation Resolution for Massive Cell Phone Traffic Data. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile Data. :25–30.

Cellular towers capture logs of mobile subscribers whenever their devices connect to the network. When the logs show data traffic at a cell tower generated by a device, it reveals that this device is close to the tower. The logs can then be used to trace the locations of mobile subscribers for different applications, such as studying customer behaviour, improving location-based services, or helping urban planning. However, the logs often suffer from an oscillation phenomenon. Oscillations may happen when a device, even when not moving, does not only connect to the nearest cell tower, but is instead unpredictably switching between multiple cell towers because of random noise, load balancing, or simply dynamic changes in signal strength. Detecting and removing oscillations are a challenge when analyzing location data collected from the cellular network. In this paper, we propose an algorithm called SOL (Stable, Oscillation, Leap periods) aimed at discovering and reducing oscillations in the collected logs. We apply our algorithm on real datasets which contain about 18.9\textasciitildeTB of traffic logs generated by more than 3\textasciitildemillion mobile subscribers covering about 21000 cell towers and collected during 27\textasciitildedays from both GSM and UMTS networks in northern China. Experimental results demonstrate the ability and effectiveness of SOL to reduce oscillations in cellular network logs.

Qi, Xiaoxia, Shen, Shuai, Wang, Qijin.  2020.  A Moving Target Defense Technology Based on SCIT. 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA). :454—457.
Moving target defense technology is one of the revolutionary techniques that is “changing the rules of the game” in the field of network technology, according to recent propositions from the US Science and Technology Commission. Building upon a recently-developed approach called Self Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance (SCIT), this paper proposes a moving target defense system that is based on server switching and cleaning. A protected object is maneuvered to improve its safety by exploiting software diversity and thereby introducing randomness and unpredictability into the system. Experimental results show that the improved system increases the difficulty of attack and significantly reduces the likelihood of a system being invaded, thus serving to enhance system security.
Qian, K., Parizi, R. M., Lo, D..  2018.  OWASP Risk Analysis Driven Security Requirements Specification for Secure Android Mobile Software Development. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—2.
The security threats to mobile applications are growing explosively. Mobile apps flaws and security defects open doors for hackers to break in and access sensitive information. Defensive requirements analysis should be an integral part of secure mobile SDLC. Developers need to consider the information confidentiality and data integrity, to verify the security early in the development lifecycle rather than fixing the security holes after attacking and data leaks take place. Early eliminating known security vulnerabilities will help developers increase the security of apps and reduce the likelihood of exploitation. However, many software developers lack the necessary security knowledge and skills at the development stage, and that's why Secure Mobile Software Development education is very necessary for mobile software engineers. In this paper, we propose a guided security requirement analysis based on OWASP Mobile Top ten security risk recommendations for Android mobile software development and its traceability of the developmental controls in SDLC. Building secure apps immune to the OWASP Mobile Top ten risks would be an effective approach to provide very useful mobile security guidelines.
Qian, Kai, Dan Lo, Chia-Tien, Guo, Minzhe, Bhattacharya, Prabir, Yang, Li.  2012.  Mobile security labware with smart devices for cybersecurity education. IEEE 2nd Integrated STEM Education Conference. :1—3.

Smart mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have become an integral part of our society. However, it also becomes a prime target for attackers with malicious intents. There have been a number of efforts on developing innovative courseware to promote cybersecurity education and to improve student learning; however, hands-on labs are not well developed for smart mobile devices and for mobile security topics. In this paper, we propose to design and develop a mobile security labware with smart mobile devices to promote the cybersecurity education. The integration of mobile computing technologies and smart devices into cybersecurity education will connect the education to leading-edge information technologies, motivate and engage students in security learning, fill in the gap with IT industry need, and help faculties build expertise on mobile computing. In addition, the hands-on experience with mobile app development will promote student learning and supply them with a better understanding of security knowledge not only in classical security domains but also in the emerging mobile security areas.

Qian, Y..  2019.  Research on Trusted Authentication Model and Mechanism of Data Fusion. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :479–482.
Firstly, this paper analyses the technical foundation of single sign-on solution of unified authentication platform, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Secondly, from the point of view of software engineering, such as function requirement, performance requirement, development mode, architecture scheme, technology development framework and system configuration environment of the unified authentication platform, the unified authentication platform is analyzed and designed, and the database design and system design framework of the system are put forward according to the system requirements. Thirdly, the idea and technology of unified authentication platform based on JA-SIG CAS are discussed, and the design and implementation of each module of unified authentication platform based on JA-SIG CAS are analyzed, which has been applied in ship cluster platform.
Qiao, B., Jin, L., Yang, Y..  2016.  An Adaptive Algorithm for Grey Image Edge Detection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis. 2016 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :470—474.

In the original algorithm for grey correlation analysis, the detected edge is comparatively rough and the thresholds need determining in advance. Thus, an adaptive edge detection method based on grey correlation analysis is proposed, in which the basic principle of the original algorithm for grey correlation analysis is used to get adaptively automatic threshold according to the mean value of the 3×3 area pixels around the detecting pixel and the property of people's vision. Because the false edge that the proposed algorithm detected is relatively large, the proposed algorithm is enhanced by dealing with the eight neighboring pixels around the edge pixel, which is merged to get the final edge map. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get more complete edge map with better continuity by comparing with the traditional edge detection algorithms.

Qiao, G., Zhao, Y., Liu, S., Ahmed, N..  2020.  The Effect of Acoustic-Shell Coupling on Near-End Self-Interference Signal of In-Band Full-Duplex Underwater Acoustic Communication Modem. 2020 17th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :606–610.
In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) Underwater Acoustic (UWA) communication technology plays a major role in enhancing the performance of Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSN). Self-Interference (SI) is one of the main inherent challenges affecting the performance of IBFD UWA communication. To reconstruct the SI signal and counteract the SI effect, this is important to estimate the short range channel through which the SI signal passes. Inaccurate estimation will result in the performance degradation of IBFD UWA communication. From the perspective of engineering implementation, we consider that the UWA communication modem shell has a significant influence on the short-range SI channel, which will limit the efficiency of self-interference cancellation in the analog domain to some degree. Therefore we utilize a simplified model to simulate the influence of the structure of the IBFD UWA communication modem on the receiving end. This paper studies the effect of acoustic-shell coupling on near-end self-interference signal of IBFD UWA communication modem. Some suggestions on the design of shell structure of IBFD UWA communication modem are given.
Qiao, Siyi, Hu, Chengchen, Guan, Xiaohong, Zou, Jianhua.  2016.  Taming the Flow Table Overflow in OpenFlow Switch. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGCOMM Conference. :591–592.

SDN has become the wide area network technology, which the academic and industry most concerned about.The limited table sizes of today’s SDN switches has turned to the most prominent short planks in the network design implementation. TCAM based flow table can provide an excellent matching performance while it really costs much. Even the flow table overflow cannot be prevented by a fixed-capacity flow table. In this paper, we design FTS(Flow Table Sharing) mechanism that can improve the performance disaster caused by overflow. We demonstrate that FTS reduces both control messages quantity and RTT time by two orders of magnitude compared to current state-of-the-art OpenFlow table-miss handler.

Qiao, Yue, Srinivasan, Kannan, Arora, Anish.  2017.  Channel Spoofer: Defeating Channel Variability and Unpredictability. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies. :402–413.
A vast literature on secret sharing protocols now exists based on the folk theorem that the wireless channel between communicating parties Alice and Bob cannot be controlled or predicted by a third party in a fine-grain way. We find that the folk theorem unfortunately does not hold. In particular, we show how an adversary, using a customized full-duplex forwarder, can control the channel seen by Alice and Bob in fine granularity without leaving a trace, while predicting with high probability the secrets generated by any channel reciprocity based secret sharing protocol. An implementation of our proposed secret manipulator, called Channel Spoofer, on a software-defined radio platform empirically verifies Channel Spoofer's effectiveness in breaking several representative state-of-the-art secret sharing protocols. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed Channel Spoofer is the first practical attacker against all extant channel reciprocity based secret sharing protocols.
Qiao, Z., Cheng, L., Zhang, S., Yang, L., Guo, C..  2017.  Detection of Composite Insulators Inner Defects Based on Flash Thermography. 2017 1st International Conference on Electrical Materials and Power Equipment (ICEMPE). :359–363.

Usually, the air gap will appear inside the composite insulators and it will lead to serious accident. In order to detect these internal defects in composite insulators operated in the transmission lines, a new non-destructive technique has been proposed. In the study, the mathematical analysis model of the composite insulators inner defects, which is about heat diffusion, has been build. The model helps to analyze the propagation process of heat loss and judge the structure and defects under the surface. Compared with traditional detection methods and other non-destructive techniques, the technique mentioned above has many advantages. In the study, air defects of composite insulators have been made artificially. Firstly, the artificially fabricated samples are tested by flash thermography, and this method shows a good performance to figure out the structure or defects under the surface. Compared the effect of different excitation between flash and hair drier, the artificially samples have a better performance after heating by flash. So the flash excitation is better. After testing by different pollution on the surface, it can be concluded that different pollution don't have much influence on figuring out the structure or defect under the surface, only have some influence on heat diffusion. Then the defective composite insulators from work site are detected and the image of defect is clear. This new active thermography system can be detected quickly, efficiently and accurately, ignoring the influence of different pollution and other environmental restrictions. So it will have a broad prospect of figuring out the defeats and structure in composite insulators even other styles of insulators.

Qin, Baodong, Zheng, Dong.  2019.  Generic Approach to Outsource the Decryption of Attribute-Based Encryption in Cloud Computing. IEEE Access. 7:42331—42342.

The notion of attribute-based encryption with outsourced decryption (OD-ABE) was proposed by Green, Hohenberger, and Waters. In OD-ABE, the ABE ciphertext is converted to a partially-decrypted ciphertext that has a shorter bit length and a faster decryption time than that of the ABE ciphertext. In particular, the transformation can be performed by a powerful third party with a public transformation key. In this paper, we propose a generic approach for constructing ABE with outsourced decryption from standard ABE, as long as the later satisfies some additional properties. Its security can be reduced to the underlying standard ABE in the selective security model by a black-box way. To avoid the drawback of selective security in practice, we further propose a modified decryption outsourcing mode so that our generic construction can be adapted to satisfying adaptive security. This partially solves the open problem of constructing an OD-ABE scheme, and its adaptive security can be reduced to the underlying ABE scheme in a black-box way. Then, we present some concrete constructions that not only encompass existing ABE outsourcing schemes of Green et al., but also result in new selectively/adaptively-secure OD-ABE schemes with more efficient transformation key generation algorithm. Finally, we use the PBC library to test the efficiency of our schemes and compare the results with some previous ones, which shows that our schemes are more efficient in terms of decryption outsourcing and transformation key generation.

Qin, Hao, Li, Zhi, Hu, Peng, Zhang, Yulong, Dai, Yuwen.  2019.  Research on Point-To-Point Encryption Method of Power System Communication Data Based on Block Chain Technology. 2019 12th International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA). :328–332.
Aiming at the poor stability of traditional communication data encryption methods, a point-to-point encryption method of power system communication data based on block chain technology is studied and designed. According to the principle of asymmetric key encryption, the design method makes use of the decentralization and consensus mechanism of block chain technology to develop the public key distribution scheme. After the public key distribution is completed, the sender and receiver of communication data generate the transfer key and pair the key with the public key to realize the pairing between data points. Xor and modular exponentiation are performed on the communication data content, and prime Numbers are used to fill the content data block. The receiver decrypts the data according to the encryption identifier of the data content, and completes the design of the encryption method of communication data point to ground. Through the comparison with the traditional encryption method, it is proved that the larger the amount of encrypted data is, the more secure the communication data can be, and the stability performance is better than the traditional encryption method.
Qin, Maoyuan, Hu, Wei, Mu, Dejun, Tai, Yu.  2018.  Property Based Formal Security Verification for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :62—67.

The design of modern computer hardware heavily relies on third-party intellectual property (IP) cores, which may contain malicious hardware Trojans that could be exploited by an adversary to leak secret information or take control of the system. Existing hardware Trojan detection methods either require a golden reference design for comparison or extensive functional testing to identify suspicious signals. In this paper, we propose a new formal verification method to verify the security of hardware designs. The proposed solution formalizes fine grained gate level information flow model for proving security properties of hardware designs in the Coq theorem prover environment. Compare with existing register transfer level (RTL) information flow security models, our model only needs to translate a small number of logic primitives to their formal representations without the need of supporting the rich RTL HDL semantics or dealing with complex conditional branch or loop structures. As a result, a gate level information flow model can be created at much lower complexity while achieving significantly higher precision in modeling the security behavior of hardware designs. We use the AES-T1700 benchmark from Trust-HUB to demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution. Experimental results show that our method can detect and pinpoint the Trojan.