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R P, Jagadeesh Chandra Bose, Singi, Kapil, Kaulgud, Vikrant, Phokela, Kanchanjot Kaur, Podder, Sanjay.  2019.  Framework for Trustworthy Software Development. 2019 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshop (ASEW). :45–48.
Intelligent software applications are becoming ubiquitous and pervasive affecting various aspects of our lives and livelihoods. At the same time, the risks to which these systems expose the organizations and end users are growing dramatically. Trustworthiness of software applications is becoming a paramount necessity. Trust is to be regarded as a first-class citizen in the total product life cycle and should be addressed across all stages of software development. Trust can be looked at from two facets: one at an algorithmic level (e.g., bias-free, discrimination-aware, explainable and interpretable techniques) and the other at a process level by making development processes more transparent, auditable, and adhering to regulations and best practices. In this paper, we address the latter and propose a blockchain enabled governance framework for building trustworthy software. Our framework supports the recording, monitoring, and analysis of various activities throughout the application development life cycle thereby bringing in transparency and auditability. It facilitates the specification of regulations and best practices and verifies for its adherence raising alerts of non-compliance and prescribes remedial measures.
R, Naveen, Chaitanya, N.S.V, M, Nikhil Srinivas, Vineeth, Nandhini.  2020.  Implementation of a Methodology for Detection and Prevention of Security Attacks in Vehicular Adhoc Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1–6.
In the current generation, road accidents and security problems increase dramatically worldwide in our day to day life. In order to overcome this, Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANETs) is considered as a key element of future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). With the advancement in vehicular communications, the attacks have also increased, and such architecture is still exposed to many weaknesses which led to numerous security threats that must be addressed before VANET technology is practically and safely adopted. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, replay attacks and Sybil attacks are the significant security threats that affect the communication and privacy in VANET. An algorithm to detect and prevent various kinds of security attacks in VANET communication has been designed and proposed in this work. An analysis has also been done by applying four protocols on an existing scenario of real traffic simulator using OpenStreetMap and the best suitable protocol has been selected for further application. The evaluation has been done using SUMO, NS3 and Java simulation environment. Simulation results and extensive performance analysis shows that our proposed Algorithm performs well in detecting and preventing the attacks in VANET communication.
R, Padmashri., Srinivasulu, Senduru, Raj, Jeberson Retna, J, Jabez., Gowri, S..  2021.  Perceptual Image Hashing Using Surffor Feature Extraction and Ensemble Classifier. 2021 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICPSC). :41—44.

Image hash regimes have been widely used for authenticating content, recovery of images and digital forensics. In this article we propose a new algorithm for image haunting (SSL) with the most stable key points and regional features, strong against various manipulation of content conservation, including multiple combinatorial manipulations. In order to extract most stable keypoint, the proposed algorithm combines the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) with Saliency detection. The keyboards and characteristics of the local area are then combined in a hash vector. There is also a sperate secret key that is randomly given for the hash vector to prevent an attacker from shaping the image and the new hash value. The proposed hacking algorithm shows that similar or initial images, which have been individually manipulated, combined and even multiple manipulated contents, can be visently identified by experimental result. The probability of collision between hacks of various images is almost nil. Furthermore, the key-dependent security assessment shows the proposed regime safe to allow an attacker without knowing the secret key not to forge or estimate the right havoc value.

R, Prasath, Rajan, Rajesh George.  2021.  Autonomous Application in Requirements Analysis of Information System Development for Producing a Design Model. 2021 2nd International Conference on Communication, Computing and Industry 4.0 (C2I4). :1—8.
The main technology of traditional information security is firewall, intrusion detection and anti-virus software, which is used in the first anti-outer defence, the first anti-service terminal defence terminal passive defence ideas, the complexity and complexity of these security technologies not only increase the complexity of the autonomous system, reduce the efficiency of the system, but also cannot solve the security problem of the information system, and cannot satisfy the security demand of the information system. After a significant stretch of innovative work, individuals utilize the secret word innovation, network security innovation, set forward the idea “confided in figuring” in view of the equipment security module support, Trusted processing from changing the customary protection thoughts, center around the safety efforts taken from the terminal to forestall framework assaults, from the foundation of the stage, the acknowledgment of the security of data frameworks. Believed figuring is chiefly worried about the security of the framework terminal, utilizing a progression of safety efforts to ensure the protection of clients to work on the security of independent frameworks. Its principle plan thought is implanted in a typical machine to oppose altering the equipment gadget - confided in stage module as the base of the trust, the utilization of equipment and programming innovation to join the trust of the base of trust through the trust bind level to the entire independent framework, joined with the security of information stockpiling insurance, client validation and stage respectability of the three significant safety efforts guarantee that the terminal framework security and unwavering quality, to guarantee that the terminal framework is consistently in a condition of conduct anticipated.
R. Lee, L. Mullen, P. Pal, D. Illig.  2015.  "Time of flight measurements for optically illuminated underwater targets using Compressive Sampling and Sparse reconstruction". OCEANS 2015 - MTS/IEEE Washington. :1-6.

Compressive Sampling and Sparse reconstruction theory is applied to a linearly frequency modulated continuous wave hybrid lidar/radar system. The goal is to show that high resolution time of flight measurements to underwater targets can be obtained utilizing far fewer samples than dictated by Nyquist sampling theorems. Traditional mixing/down-conversion and matched filter signal processing methods are reviewed and compared to the Compressive Sampling and Sparse Reconstruction methods. Simulated evidence is provided to show the possible sampling rate reductions, and experiments are used to observe the effects that turbid underwater environments have on recovery. Results show that by using compressive sensing theory and sparse reconstruction, it is possible to achieve significant sample rate reduction while maintaining centimeter range resolution.

R. Leszczyna, M. Łosiński, R. Małkowski.  2015.  "Security information sharing for the polish power system". 2015 Modern Electric Power Systems (MEPS). :1-6.

The Polish Power System is becoming increasingly more dependent on Information and Communication Technologies which results in its exposure to cyberattacks, including the evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as Advanced Persistent Threats or Distributed Denial of Service attacks. The most exposed components are SCADA systems in substations and Distributed Control Systems in power plants. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. With the rapidly evolving cyber threat landscape the use of partnerships and information sharing has become critical. However due to several anonymity concerns the relevant stakeholders may become reluctant to exchange sensitive information about security incidents. In the paper a multi-agent architecture is presented for the Polish Power System which addresses the anonymity concerns.

R. Mishra, A. Mishra, P. Bhanodiya.  2015.  "An edge based image steganography with compression and encryption". 2015 International Conference on Computer, Communication and Control (IC4). :1-4.

Security of secret data has been a major issue of concern from ancient time. Steganography and cryptography are the two techniques which are used to reduce the security threat. Cryptography is an art of converting secret message in other than human readable form. Steganography is an art of hiding the existence of secret message. These techniques are required to protect the data theft over rapidly growing network. To achieve this there is a need of such a system which is very less susceptible to human visual system. In this paper a new technique is going to be introducing for data transmission over an unsecure channel. In this paper secret data is compressed first using LZW algorithm before embedding it behind any cover media. Data is compressed to reduce its size. After compression data encryption is performed to increase the security. Encryption is performed with the help of a key which make it difficult to get the secret message even if the existence of the secret message is reveled. Now the edge of secret message is detected by using canny edge detector and then embedded secret data is stored there with the help of a hash function. Proposed technique is implemented in MATLAB and key strength of this project is its huge data hiding capacity and least distortion in Stego image. This technique is applied over various images and the results show least distortion in altered image.

R. Saravanan, V. Saminadan, V. Thirunavukkarasu.  2015.  "VLSI implementation of BER measurement for wireless communication system". 2015 International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS). :1-5.

This paper presents the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the wireless communication system. The complexity of modern wireless communication system are increasing at fast pace. It becomes challenging to design the hardware of wireless system. The proposed system consists of MIMO transmitter and MIMO receiver along with the along with a realistic fading channel. To make the data transmission more secure when the data are passed into channel Crypto-System with Embedded Error Control (CSEEC) is used. The system supports data security and reliability using forward error correction codes (FEC). Security is provided through the use of a new symmetric encryption algorithm, and reliability is provided by the use of FEC codes. The system aims at speeding up the encryption and encoding operations and reduces the hardware dedicated to each of these operations. The proposed system allows users to achieve more security and reliable communication. The proposed BER measurement communication system consumes low power compared to existing systems. Advantage of VLSI based BER measurement it that they can be used in the Real time applications and it provides single chip solution.

R., Nithin Rao, Sharma, Rinki.  2021.  Analysis of Interest and Data Packet Behaviour in Vehicular Named Data Network. 2021 IEEE Madras Section Conference (MASCON). :1–5.
Named Data Network (NDN) is considered to be the future of Internet architecture. The nature of NDN is to disseminate data based on the naming scheme rather than the location of the node. This feature caters to the need of vehicular applications, resulting in Vehicular Named Data Networks (VNDN). Although it is still in the initial stages of research, the collaboration has assured various advantages which attract the researchers to explore the architecture further. VNDN face challenges such as intermittent connectivity, mobility of nodes, design of efficient forwarding and naming schemes, among others. In order to develop effective forwarding strategies, behavior of data and interest packets under various circumstances needs to be studied. In this paper, propagation behavior of data and interest packets is analyzed by considering metrics such as Interest Satisfaction Ratio (ISR), Hop Count Difference (HCD) and Copies of Data Packets Processed (CDPP). These metrics are evaluated under network conditions such as varying network size, node mobility and amount of interest produced by each node. Simulation results show that data packets do not follow the reverse path of interest packets.
Ra, Gyeong-Jin, Lee, Im-Yeong.  2019.  A Study on Hybrid Blockchain-based XGS (XOR Global State) Injection Technology for Efficient Contents Modification and Deletion. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :300—305.

Blockchain is a database technology that provides the integrity and trust of the system can't make arbitrary modifications and deletions by being an append-only distributed ledger. That is, the blockchain is not a modification or deletion but a CRAB (Create-Retrieve-Append-Burn) method in which data can be read and written according to a legitimate user's access right(For example, owner private key). However, this can not delete the created data once, which causes problems such as privacy breach. In this paper, we propose an on-off block-chained Hybrid Blockchain system to separate the data and save the connection history to the blockchain. In addition, the state is changed to the distributed database separately from the ledger record, and the state is changed by generating the arbitrary injection in the XOR form, so that the history of modification / deletion of the Off Blockchain can be efficiently retrieved.

Raab, Alexander, Mehlmann, Gert, Luther, Matthias, Sennewald, Tom, Schlegel, Steffen, Westermann, Dirk.  2021.  Steady-State and Dynamic Security Assessment for System Operation. 2021 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST). :1—6.

This contribution provides the implementation of a holistic operational security assessment process for both steady-state security and dynamic stability. The merging of steady-state and dynamic security assessment as a sequential process is presented. A steady-state and dynamic modeling of a VSC-HVDC was performed including curative and stabilizing measures as remedial actions. The assessment process was validated by a case study on a modified version of the Nordic 32 system. Simulation results showed that measure selection based on purely steady-state contingency analysis can lead to loss of stability in time domain. A subsequent selection of measures on the basis of the dynamic security assessment was able to guarantee the operational security for the stationary N-1 scenario as well as the power system stability.

Raafat, Maryam A., El-Wakil, Rania Abdel-Fattah, Atia, Ayman.  2021.  Comparative study for Stylometric analysis techniques for authorship attribution. 2021 International Mobile, Intelligent, and Ubiquitous Computing Conference (MIUCC). :176—181.
A text is a meaningful source of information. Capturing the right patterns in written text gives metrics to measure and infer to what extent this text belongs or is relevant to a specific author. This research aims to introduce a new feature that goes more in deep in the language structure. The feature introduced is based on an attempt to differentiate stylistic changes among authors according to the different sentence structure each author uses. The study showed the effect of introducing this new feature to machine learning models to enhance their performance. It was found that the prediction of authors was enhanced by adding sentence structure as an additional feature as the f1\_scores increased by 0.3% and when normalizing the data and adding the feature it increased by 5%.
Rabari, Jeet, Kumar, Arun Raj P..  2021.  FIFA: Fighting against Interest Flooding Attack in NDN-based VANET. 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1539–1544.
A vehicular Ad-hoc network (VANET) allows groups of autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles to share information and content with each other and infrastructure. Named Data Networking (NDN) is recently proposed as one of the future internet architectures, which allows communication in network-based upon content name. It has originated from Information-centric networking (ICN). NDN-based VANET uses NDN as an underlying communication paradigm. NDN-based VANET suffers from several security attacks, one such attack is the Interest Flooding Attack (IFA) that targets the core forwarding mechanism of NDN-based VANET. This paper focuses on the detection and mitigation of IFA in NDN-based VANET. We proposed a method FIFA to detect and mitigate IFA. Our proposed method is capable of detecting normal IFA as well as a low-rate IFA. Along with that FIFA also ensures non-repudiation in networks. We have compared our proposed method with the existing mechanism to detect and mitigate IFA named IFAMS. Experiment results show that our method detects and mitigates normal IFA and low-rate IFA in the network.
Rabbani, Mustafa Raza, Bashar, Abu, Atif, Mohd, Jreisat, Ammar, Zulfikar, Zehra, Naseem, Yusra.  2021.  Text mining and visual analytics in research: Exploring the innovative tools. 2021 International Conference on Decision Aid Sciences and Application (DASA). :1087–1091.
The aim of the study is to present an advanced overview and potential application of the innovative tools/software's/methods used for data visualization, text mining, scientific mapping, and bibliometric analysis. Text mining and data visualization has been a topic of research for several years for academic researchers and practitioners. With the advancement in technology and innovation in the data analysis techniques, there are many online and offline software tools available for text mining and visualisation. The purpose of this study is to present an advanced overview of latest, sophisticated, and innovative tools available for this purpose. The unique characteristic about this study is that it provides an overview with examples of the five most adopted software tools such as VOSviewer, Biblioshiny, Gephi, HistCite and CiteSpace in social science research. This study will contribute to the academic literature and will help the researchers and practitioners to apply these tools in future research to present their findings in a more scientific manner.
Rabby, M. K. Monir, Khan, M. Altaf, Karimoddini, A., Jiang, S. X..  2020.  Modeling of Trust Within a Human-Robot Collaboration Framework. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :4267—4272.

In this paper, a time-driven performance-aware mathematical model for trust in the robot is proposed for a Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) framework. The proposed trust model is based on both the human operator and the robot performances. The human operator’s performance is modeled based on both the physical and cognitive performances, while the robot performance is modeled over its unpredictable, predictable, dependable, and faithful operation regions. The model is validated via different simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the trust in the robot in the HRC framework is governed by robot performance and human operator’s performance and can be improved by enhancing the robot performance.

Raber, Frederic, Krüger, Antonio.  2018.  Deriving Privacy Settings for Location Sharing: Are Context Factors Always the Best Choice? 2018 IEEE Symposium on Privacy-Aware Computing (PAC). :86–94.
Research has observed context factors like occasion and time as influential factors for predicting whether or not to share a location with online friends. In other domains like social networks, personality was also found to play an important role. Furthermore, users are seeking a fine-grained disclosement policy that also allows them to display an obfuscated location, like the center of the current city, to some of their friends. In this paper, we observe which context factors and personality measures can be used to predict the correct privacy level out of seven privacy levels, which include obfuscation levels like center of the street or current city. Our results show that a prediction is possible with a precision 20% better than a constant value. We will give design indications to determine which context factors should be recorded, and how much the precision can be increased if personality and privacy measures are recorded using either a questionnaire or automated text analysis.
Raber, Frederic, Krüger, Antonio.  2018.  Deriving Privacy Settings for Location Sharing: Are Context Factors Always the Best Choice? 2018 IEEE Symposium on Privacy-Aware Computing (PAC). :86–94.
Research has observed context factors like occasion and time as influential factors for predicting whether or not to share a location with online friends. In other domains like social networks, personality was also found to play an important role. Furthermore, users are seeking a fine-grained disclosement policy that also allows them to display an obfuscated location, like the center of the current city, to some of their friends. In this paper, we observe which context factors and personality measures can be used to predict the correct privacy level out of seven privacy levels, which include obfuscation levels like center of the street or current city. Our results show that a prediction is possible with a precision 20% better than a constant value. We will give design indications to determine which context factors should be recorded, and how much the precision can be increased if personality and privacy measures are recorded using either a questionnaire or automated text analysis.
Rabie, Asmaa.  2016.  The RSA Trap. XRDS. 23:65–65.
Rabie, R., Drissi, M..  2018.  Applying Sigmoid Filter for Detecting the Low-Rate Denial of Service Attacks. 2018 IEEE 8th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :450–456.

This paper focuses on optimizing the sigmoid filter for detecting Low-Rate DoS attacks. Though sigmoid filter could help for detecting the attacker, it could severely affect the network efficiency. Unlike high rate attacks, Low-Rate DoS attacks such as ``Shrew'' and ``New Shrew'' are hard to detect. Attackers choose a malicious low-rate bandwidth to exploit the TCP's congestion control window algorithm and the re-transition timeout mechanism. We simulated the attacker traffic by editing using NS3. The Sigmoid filter was used to create a threshold bandwidth filter at the router that allowed a specific bandwidth, so when traffic that exceeded the threshold occurred, it would be dropped, or it would be redirected to a honey-pot server, instead. We simulated the Sigmoid filter using MATLAB and took the attacker's and legitimate user's traffic generated by NS-3 as the input for the Sigmoid filter in the MATLAB. We run the experiment three times with different threshold values correlated to the TCP packet size. We found the probability to detect the attacker traffic as follows: the first was 25%, the second 50% and the third 60%. However, we observed a drop in legitimate user traffic with the following probabilities, respectively: 75%, 50%, and 85%.

Rabieh, K., Mercan, S., Akkaya, K., Baboolal, V., Aygun, R. S..  2020.  Privacy-Preserving and Efficient Sharing of Drone Videos in Public Safety Scenarios using Proxy Re-encryption. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :45–52.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) also known as drones are being used in many applications where they can record or stream videos. One interesting application is the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and public safety applications where drones record videos and send them to a control center for further analysis. These videos are shared by various clients such as law enforcement or emergency personnel. In such cases, the recording might include faces of civilians or other sensitive information that might pose privacy concerns. While the video can be encrypted and stored in the cloud that way, it can still be accessed once the keys are exposed to third parties which is completely insecure. To prevent such insecurity, in this paper, we propose proxy re-encryption based sharing scheme to enable third parties to access only limited videos without having the original encryption key. The costly pairing operations in proxy re-encryption are not used to allow rapid access and delivery of the surveillance videos to third parties. The key management is handled by a trusted control center, which acts as the proxy to re-encrypt the data. We implemented and tested the approach in a realistic simulation environment using different resolutions under ns-3. The implementation results and comparisons indicate that there is an acceptable overhead while it can still preserve the privacy of drivers and passengers.
Rachini, Ali S., Khatoun, R..  2020.  Distributed Key Management Authentication Algorithm in Internet of Things (IOT). 2020 Sixth International Conference on Mobile And Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–5.
Radio frequency identification system (RFID) is a wireless technology based on radio waves. These radio waves transmit data from the tag to a reader, which then transmits the information to a server. RFID tags have several advantages, they can be used in merchandise, to track vehicles, and even patients. Connecting RFID tags to internet terminal or server it called Internet of Things (IoT). Many people have shown interest in connected objects or the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is composed of many complementary elements each having their own specificities. The RFID is often seen as a prerequisite for the IoT. The main challenge of RFID is the security issues. Connecting RFID with IoT poses security threats and challenges which are needed to be discussed properly before deployment. In this paper, we proposed a new distributed encryption algorithm to be used in the IoT structure in order to reduce the security risks that are confronted in RFID technology.
Rachmawati, Dian, Budiman, Mohammad Andri, Habibi, Wiro Tirta.  2021.  Three-Pass Protocol Scheme for Securing Image Files Using the Hill Cipher 3x3 Algorithm. 2021 International Conference on Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Business Analytics (DATABIA). :130–135.
There will be a fatal risk when the submitted file is stolen or altered by someone else during the file submission process. To maintain the security of sending files from sender to recipient, it is necessary to secure files. The science of maintaining the security of messages is called cryptography. The authors were interested in examining the Three Pass Protocol scheme in this study because it eliminated the necessity for sender and receiver to exchange keys during the operation of the Hill Cipher 3x3 algorithm. The Hill Cipher algorithm was chosen because the key has an inverse and matrix-shaped value. Then the key used must be checked whether it has a GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) grade 1 or not and will be shaped like matrix. System implementation using the Java programming language using Android Studio software. System testing is done by encrypting and decrypting files. System testing results illustrate that the process encryption and decryption by the sender is faster than the recipient, so the encryption and decryption time needed directly proportional; the larger the pixel size of the image on the image file used, the longer it takes.
Radha, P., Selvakumar, N., Sekar, J. Raja, Johnsonselva, J. V..  2018.  Enhancing Internet of Battle Things using Ultrasonic assisted Non-Destructive Testing (Technical solution). 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC). :1—4.

The subsystem of IoMT (Internet of Military of Things) called IoBT (Internet of Battle of Things) is the major resource of the military where the various stack holders of the battlefield and different categories of equipment are tightly integrated through the internet. The proposed architecture mentioned in this paper will be helpful to design IoBT effectively for warfare using irresistible technologies like information technology, embedded technology, and network technology. The role of Machine intelligence is essential in IoBT to create smart things and provide accurate solutions without human intervention. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is used in Industries to examine and analyze the invisible defects of equipment. Generally, the ultrasonic waves are used to examine and analyze the internal defects of materials. Hence the proposed architecture of IoBT is enhanced by ultrasonic based NDT to study the properties of the things of the battlefield without causing any damage.

Radhakrishnan, C., Karthick, K., Asokan, R..  2020.  Ensemble Learning Based Network Anomaly Detection Using Clustered Generalization of the Features. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking (ICACCCN). :157–162.
Due to the extraordinary volume of business information, classy cyber-attacks pointing the networks of all enterprise have become more casual, with intruders trying to pierce vast into and grasp broader from the compromised network machines. The vital security essential is that field experts and the network administrators have a common terminology to share the attempt of intruders to invoke the system and to rapidly assist each other retort to all kind of threats. Given the enormous huge system traffic, traditional Machine Learning (ML) algorithms will provide ineffective predictions of the network anomaly. Thereby, a hybridized multi-model system can improve the accuracy of detecting the intrusion in the networks. In this manner, this article presents a novel approach Clustered Generalization oriented Ensemble Learning Model (CGELM) for predicting the network anomaly. The performance metrics of the anticipated approach are Detection Rate (DR) and False Predictive Rate (FPR) for the two heterogeneous data sets namely NSL-KDD and UGR'16. The proposed method provides 98.93% accuracy for DR and 0.14% of FPR against Decision Stump AdaBoost and Stacking Ensemble methods.
Radhakrishnan, Kiran, Menon, Rajeev R, Nath, Hiran V.  2019.  A survey of zero-day malware attacks and its detection methodology. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :533—539.

The recent malware outbreaks have shown that the existing end-point security solutions are not robust enough to secure the systems from getting compromised. The techniques, like code obfuscation along with one or more zero-days, are used by malware developers for evading the security systems. These malwares are used for large-scale attacks involving Advanced Persistent Threats(APT), Botnets, Cryptojacking, etc. Cryptojacking poses a severe threat to various organizations and individuals. We are summarising multiple methods available for the detection of malware.