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Saxena, U., Sodhi, J., Singh, Y..  2020.  A Comprehensive Approach for DDoS Attack Detection in Smart Home Network Using Shortest Path Algorithm. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :392—395.
A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is an attack that compromised the bandwidth of the whole network by choking down all the available network resources which are publically available, thus makes access to that resource unavailable. The DDoS attack is more vulnerable than a normal DoS attack because here the sources of attack origin are more than one, so users cannot even estimate how to detect and where to take actions so that attacks can be dissolved. This paper proposed a unique approach for DDoS detection using the shortest path algorithm. This Paper suggests that the remedy that must be taken in order to counter-affect the DDoS attack in a smart home network.
Saxena, U., Bachhan, O. P., Majumdar, R..  2015.  Static and dynamic malware behavioral analysis based on arm based board. 2015 2nd International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom). :272–277.

A trap set to detect attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. But setting up these honeypots and keep these guzzling electricity 24X7 is rather expensive. Plus there is always a risk of a skillful hacker or a deadly malware may break through this and compromise the whole system. Honeypot name suggest, a pot that contents full of honey to allure beers, but in networks Scenario honeypot is valuable tool that helps to allure attackers. It helps to detect and analyze malicious activity over your network. However honeypots used for commercial organization do not share data and large honeypot gives read only data. We propose an Arm based device having all capability of honeypots to allure attackers. Current honeypots are based on large Network but we are trying to make s device which have the capabilities to establish in small network and cost effective. This research helps us to make a device based on arm board and CCFIS Software to allure attackers which is easy to install and cost effective. CCFIS Sensor helps us to Capture malware and Analysis the attack. In this we did reverse Engineering of honeypots to know about how it captures malware. During reverse engineering we know about pros and cons of honeypots that are mitigated in CCFIS Sensor. After Completion of device we compared honeypots and CCFIS Sensor to check the effectiveness of device.

Sayakkara, Asanka, Le-Khac, Nhien-An, Scanlon, Mark.  2018.  Accuracy Enhancement of Electromagnetic Side-Channel Attacks on Computer Monitors. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :15:1–15:9.
Electromagnetic noise emitted from running computer displays modulates information about the picture frames being displayed on screen. Attacks have been demonstrated on eavesdropping computer displays by utilising these emissions as a side-channel vector. The accuracy of reconstructing a screen image depends on the emission sampling rate and bandwidth of the attackers signal acquisition hardware. The cost of radio frequency acquisition hardware increases with increased supported frequency range and bandwidth. A number of enthusiast-level, affordable software defined radio equipment solutions are currently available facilitating a number of radio-focused attacks at a more reasonable price point. This work investigates three accuracy influencing factors, other than the sample rate and bandwidth, namely noise removal, image blending, and image quality adjustments, that affect the accuracy of monitor image reconstruction through electromagnetic side-channel attacks.
Sayed Javed, Ahmad.  2018.  Total e-Governance: Pros Cons. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :245—249.

"Good Governance" - may it be corporate or governmental, is a badly needed focus area in the world today where the companies and governments are struggling to survive the political and economical turmoil around the globe. All governments around the world have a tendency of expanding the size of their government, but eventually they would be forced to think reducing the size by incorporating information technology as a way to provide services to the citizens effectively and efficiently. Hence our attempt is to offer a complete solution from birth of a citizen till death encompassing all the necessary services related to the well being of a person living in a society. Our research and analysis would explore the pros and cons of using IT as a solution to our problems and ways to implement them for a best outcome in e-Governance occasionally comparing with the present scenario when relevant.

Sayed-Ahmed, Amr, Haj-Yahya, Jawad, Chattopadhyay, Anupam.  2019.  SoCINT: Resilient System-on-Chip via Dynamic Intrusion Detection. 2019 32nd International Conference on VLSI Design and 2019 18th International Conference on Embedded Systems (VLSID). :359—364.

Modern multicore System-on-Chips (SoCs) are regularly designed with third-party Intellectual Properties (IPs) and software tools to manage the complexity and development cost. This approach naturally introduces major security concerns, especially for those SoCs used in critical applications and cyberinfrastructure. Despite approaches like split manufacturing, security testing and hardware metering, this remains an open and challenging problem. In this work, we propose a dynamic intrusion detection approach to address the security challenge. The proposed runtime system (SoCINT) systematically gathers information about untrusted IPs and strictly enforces the access policies. SoCINT surpasses the-state-of-the-art monitoring systems by supporting hardware tracing, for more robust analysis, together with providing smart counterintelligence strategies. SoCINT is implemented in an open source processor running on a commercial FPGA platform. The evaluation results validate our claims by demonstrating resilience against attacks exploiting erroneous or malicious IPs.

Sayed, B., Traore, I..  2014.  Protection against Web 2.0 Client-Side Web Attacks Using Information Flow Control. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :261-268.

The dynamic nature of the Web 2.0 and the heavy obfuscation of web-based attacks complicate the job of the traditional protection systems such as Firewalls, Anti-virus solutions, and IDS systems. It has been witnessed that using ready-made toolkits, cyber-criminals can launch sophisticated attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF) and botnets to name a few. In recent years, cyber-criminals have targeted legitimate websites and social networks to inject malicious scripts that compromise the security of the visitors of such websites. This involves performing actions using the victim browser without his/her permission. This poses the need to develop effective mechanisms for protecting against Web 2.0 attacks that mainly target the end-user. In this paper, we address the above challenges from information flow control perspective by developing a framework that restricts the flow of information on the client-side to legitimate channels. The proposed model tracks sensitive information flow and prevents information leakage from happening. The proposed model when applied to the context of client-side web-based attacks is expected to provide a more secure browsing environment for the end-user.

Sayed, B., Traore, I..  2014.  Protection against Web 2.0 Client-Side Web Attacks Using Information Flow Control. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :261-268.

The dynamic nature of the Web 2.0 and the heavy obfuscation of web-based attacks complicate the job of the traditional protection systems such as Firewalls, Anti-virus solutions, and IDS systems. It has been witnessed that using ready-made toolkits, cyber-criminals can launch sophisticated attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF) and botnets to name a few. In recent years, cyber-criminals have targeted legitimate websites and social networks to inject malicious scripts that compromise the security of the visitors of such websites. This involves performing actions using the victim browser without his/her permission. This poses the need to develop effective mechanisms for protecting against Web 2.0 attacks that mainly target the end-user. In this paper, we address the above challenges from information flow control perspective by developing a framework that restricts the flow of information on the client-side to legitimate channels. The proposed model tracks sensitive information flow and prevents information leakage from happening. The proposed model when applied to the context of client-side web-based attacks is expected to provide a more secure browsing environment for the end-user.

Sayed, B., Traore, I..  2014.  Protection against Web 2.0 Client-Side Web Attacks Using Information Flow Control. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :261-268.

The dynamic nature of the Web 2.0 and the heavy obfuscation of web-based attacks complicate the job of the traditional protection systems such as Firewalls, Anti-virus solutions, and IDS systems. It has been witnessed that using ready-made toolkits, cyber-criminals can launch sophisticated attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF) and botnets to name a few. In recent years, cyber-criminals have targeted legitimate websites and social networks to inject malicious scripts that compromise the security of the visitors of such websites. This involves performing actions using the victim browser without his/her permission. This poses the need to develop effective mechanisms for protecting against Web 2.0 attacks that mainly target the end-user. In this paper, we address the above challenges from information flow control perspective by developing a framework that restricts the flow of information on the client-side to legitimate channels. The proposed model tracks sensitive information flow and prevents information leakage from happening. The proposed model when applied to the context of client-side web-based attacks is expected to provide a more secure browsing environment for the end-user.

Sayers, J. M., Feighery, B. E., Span, M. T..  2020.  A STPA-Sec Case Study: Eliciting Early Security Requirements for a Small Unmanned Aerial System. 2020 IEEE Systems Security Symposium (SSS). :1—8.

This work describes a top down systems security requirements analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for a notional small unmanned aerial system (SUAS). More specifically, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is used to understand and elicit systems security requirements. The effort employs STPA-Sec on a notional SUAS system case study to detail the development of functional-level security requirements, design-level engineering considerations, and architectural-level security specification criteria early in the system life cycle when the solution trade-space is largest rather than merely examining components and adding protections during system operation or sustainment. These details were elaborated during a semester independent study research effort by two United States Air Force Academy Systems Engineering cadets, guided by their instructor and a series of working group sessions with UAS operators and subject matter experts. This work provides insight into a viable systems security requirements analysis approach which results in traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.

Sayin, Muhammed O., Ba\c sar, Tamer.  2018.  Secure Sensor Design for Resiliency of Control Systems Prior to Attack Detection. 2018 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1686-1691.

We introduce a new defense mechanism for stochastic control systems with control objectives, to enhance their resilience before the detection of any attacks. To this end, we cautiously design the outputs of the sensors that monitor the state of the system since the attackers need the sensor outputs for their malicious objectives in stochastic control scenarios. Different from the defense mechanisms that seek to detect infiltration or to improve detectability of the attacks, the proposed approach seeks to minimize the damage of possible attacks before they actually have even been detected. We, specifically, consider a controlled Gauss-Markov process, where the controller could have been infiltrated into at any time within the system's operation. Within the framework of game-theoretic hierarchical equilibrium, we provide a semi-definite programming based algorithm to compute the optimal linear secure sensor outputs that enhance the resiliency of control systems prior to attack detection.

Sayler, Andy, Andrews, Taylor, Monaco, Matt, Grunwald, Dirk.  2016.  Tutamen: A Next-Generation Secret-Storage Platform. Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing. :251–264.

The storage and management of secrets (encryption keys, passwords, etc) are significant open problems in the age of ephemeral, cloud-based computing infrastructure. How do we store and control access to the secrets necessary to configure and operate a range of modern technologies without sacrificing security and privacy requirements or significantly curtailing the desirable capabilities of our systems? To answer this question, we propose Tutamen: a next-generation secret-storage service. Tutamen offers a number of desirable properties not present in existing secret-storage solutions. These include the ability to operate across administrative domain boundaries and atop minimally trusted infrastructure. Tutamen also supports access control based on contextual, multi-factor, and alternate-band authentication parameters. These properties have allowed us to leverage Tutamen to support a variety of use cases not easily realizable using existing systems, including supporting full-disk encryption on headless servers and providing fully-featured client-side encryption for cloud-based file-storage services. In this paper, we present an overview of the secret-storage challenge, Tutamen's design and architecture, the implementation of our Tutamen prototype, and several of the applications we have built atop Tutamen. We conclude that Tutamen effectively eases the secret-storage burden and allows developers and systems administrators to achieve previously unattainable security-oriented goals while still supporting a wide range of feature-oriented requirements.

Sayoud, Akila, Djendi, Mohamed, Guessoum, Abderrezak.  2018.  A Two-Sensor Fast Adaptive Algorithm for Blind Speech Enhancement. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Engineering & MIS 2018. :24:1–24:4.

This paper presents the enhancement of speech signals in a noisy environment by using a Two-Sensor Fast Normalized Least Mean Square adaptive algorithm combined with the backward blind source separation structure. A comparative study with other competitive algorithms shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm in terms of various objective criteria such as the segmental signal to noise ratio (SegSNR), the cepstral distance (CD), the system mismatch (SM) and the segmental mean square error (SegMSE).

Sayyadipour, S., Latify, M. A., Yousefi, G. R..  2016.  Vulnerability analysis of power systems during the scheduled maintenance of network facilities. 2016 Smart Grids Conference (SGC). :1–4.

This paper proposes a practical time-phased model to analyze the vulnerability of power systems over a time horizon, in which the scheduled maintenance of network facilities is considered. This model is deemed as an efficient tool that could be used by system operators to assess whether how their systems become vulnerable giving a set of scheduled facility outages. The final model is presented as a single level Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem solvable with commercially available software. Results attained based on the well-known IEEE 24-Bus Reliability Test System (RTS) appreciate the applicability of the model and highlight the necessity of considering the scheduled facility outages in assessing the vulnerability of a power system.

Sbai, Oussama, Elboukhari, Mohamed.  2018.  Simulation of MANET's Single and Multiple Blackhole Attack with NS-3. 2018 IEEE 5th International Congress on Information Science and Technology (CiSt). :612–617.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have gained popularity both in research and in industrial fields. This is due to their ad hoc nature, easy deployment thanks to the lack of fixed infrastructure, self-organization of its components, dynamic topologies and the absence of any central authority for routing. However, MANETs suffer from several vulnerabilities such as battery power, limited memory space, and physical protection of network nodes. In addition, MANETs are sensitive to various attacks that threaten network security like Blackhole attack in its different implementation (single and multiple). In this article, we present the simulation results of single and multiple Blackhole attack in AODV and OLSR protocols on using NS-3.27 simulator. In this simulation, we took into consideration the density of the network described by the number of nodes included in the network, the speed of the nodes, the mobility model and even we chose the IEEE 802.11ac protocol for the pbysicallayer, in order to have a simulation, which deals with more general and more real scenarios. To be able to evaluate the impact of the attack on the network, the Packet delivery rate, Routing overhead, Throughput and Average End to End delay have been chosen as metrics for performance evaluation.
Scaife, N., Carter, H., Traynor, P., Butler, K. R. B..  2016.  CryptoLock (and Drop It): Stopping Ransomware Attacks on User Data. 2016 IEEE 36th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :303–312.

Ransomware is a growing threat that encrypts auser's files and holds the decryption key until a ransom ispaid by the victim. This type of malware is responsible fortens of millions of dollars in extortion annually. Worse still, developing new variants is trivial, facilitating the evasion of manyantivirus and intrusion detection systems. In this work, we presentCryptoDrop, an early-warning detection system that alerts a userduring suspicious file activity. Using a set of behavior indicators, CryptoDrop can halt a process that appears to be tampering witha large amount of the user's data. Furthermore, by combininga set of indicators common to ransomware, the system can beparameterized for rapid detection with low false positives. Ourexperimental analysis of CryptoDrop stops ransomware fromexecuting with a median loss of only 10 files (out of nearly5,100 available files). Our results show that careful analysis ofransomware behavior can produce an effective detection systemthat significantly mitigates the amount of victim data loss.

Scarabaggio, Paolo, Carli, Raffaele, Dotoli, Mariagrazia.  2020.  A game-theoretic control approach for the optimal energy storage under power flow constraints in distribution networks. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :1281—1286.
Traditionally, the management of power distribution networks relies on the centralized implementation of the optimal power flow and, in particular, the minimization of the generation cost and transmission losses. Nevertheless, the increasing penetration of both renewable energy sources and independent players such as ancillary service providers in modern networks have made this centralized framework inadequate. Against this background, we propose a noncooperative game-theoretic framework for optimally controlling energy storage systems (ESSs) in power distribution networks. Specifically, in this paper we address a power grid model that comprehends traditional loads, distributed generation sources and several independent energy storage providers, each owning an individual ESS. Through a rolling-horizon approach, the latter participate in the grid optimization process, aiming both at increasing the penetration of distributed generation and leveling the power injection from the transmission grid. Our framework incorporates not only economic factors but also grid stability aspects, including the power flow constraints. The paper fully describes the distribution grid model as well as the underlying market hypotheses and policies needed to force the energy storage providers to find a feasible equilibrium for the network. Numerical experiments based on the IEEE 33-bus system confirm the effectiveness and resiliency of the proposed framework.
Schaefer, Gerald, Budnik, Mateusz, Krawczyk, Bartosz.  2017.  Immersive Browsing in an Image Sphere. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication. :26:1–26:4.
In this paper, we present an immersive image database navigation system. Images are visualised in a spherical visualisation space and arranged, on a grid, by colour so that images of similar colour are located close to each other, while access to large image sets is possible through a hierarchical browsing structure. The user is wearing a 3-D head mounted display (HMD) and is immersed inside the image sphere. Navigation is performed by head movement using a 6-degree-of-freedom tracker integrated in the HMD in conjunction with a wiimote remote control.
Schaefer, J..  2014.  A semantic self-management approach for service platforms. Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), 2014 IEEE. :1-4.

Future personal living environments feature an increasing number of convenience-, health- and security-related applications provided by distributed services, which do not only support users but require tasks such as installation, configuration and continuous administration. These tasks are becoming tiresome, complex and error-prone. One way to escape this situation is to enable service platforms to configure and manage themselves. The approach presented here extends services with semantic descriptions to enable platform-independent autonomous service level management using model driven architecture and autonomic computing concepts. It has been implemented as a OSGi-based semantic autonomic manager, whose concept, prototypical implementation and evaluation are presented.
 

Schaefer, Rafael F., Boche, Holger, Poor, H. Vincent.  2019.  Turing Meets Shannon: On the Algorithmic Computability of the Capacities of Secure Communication Systems (Invited Paper). 2019 IEEE 20th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC). :1–5.

This paper presents the recent progress in studying the algorithmic computability of capacity expressions of secure communication systems. Several communication scenarios are discussed and reviewed including the classical wiretap channel, the wiretap channel with an active jammer, and the problem of secret key generation.

Schaerer, Jakob, Zumbrunn, Severin, Braun, Torsten.  2020.  Veritaa - The Graph of Trust. 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS). :168—175.

Today the integrity of digital documents and the authenticity of their origin is often hard to verify. Existing Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) are capable of certifying digital identities but do not provide solutions to immutably store signatures, and the process of certification is often not transparent. In this work we propose Veritaa, a Distributed Public Key Infrastructure and Signature Store (DPKISS). The major innovation of Veritaa is the Graph of Trust, a directed graph that uses relations between identity claims to certify the identities and stores signed relations to digital document identifiers. The distributed architecture of Veritaa and the Graph of Trust enables a transparent certification process. To ensure non-repudiation and immutability of all actions that have been signed on the Graph of Trust, an application specific Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is used as secure storage. In this work a reference implementation of the proposed architecture was designed and implemented. Furthermore, a testbed was created and used for the evaluation of Veritaa. The evaluation of Veritaa shows the benefits and the high performance of the proposed architecture.

Schäfer, C..  2017.  Detection of compromised email accounts used for spamming in correlation with origin-destination delivery notification extracted from metadata. 2017 5th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1–6.

Fifty-four percent of the global email traffic in October 2016 was spam and phishing messages. Those emails were commonly sent from compromised email accounts. Previous research has primarily focused on detecting incoming junk mail but not locally generated spam messages. State-of-the-art spam detection methods generally require the content of the email to be able to classify it as either spam or a regular message. This content is not available within encrypted messages or is prohibited due to data privacy. The object of the research presented is to detect an anomaly with the Origin-Destination Delivery Notification method, which is based on the geographical origin and destination as well as the Delivery Status Notification of the remote SMTP server without the knowledge of the email content. The proposed method detects an abused account after a few transferred emails; it is very flexible and can be adjusted for every environment and requirement.

Schäfer, Matthias, Fuchs, Markus, Strohmeier, Martin, Engel, Markus, Liechti, Marc, Lenders, Vincent.  2019.  BlackWidow: Monitoring the Dark Web for Cyber Security Information. 2019 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). 900:1—21.

The Dark Web, a conglomerate of services hidden from search engines and regular users, is used by cyber criminals to offer all kinds of illegal services and goods. Multiple Dark Web offerings are highly relevant for the cyber security domain in anticipating and preventing attacks, such as information about zero-day exploits, stolen datasets with login information, or botnets available for hire. In this work, we analyze and discuss the challenges related to information gathering in the Dark Web for cyber security intelligence purposes. To facilitate information collection and the analysis of large amounts of unstructured data, we present BlackWidow, a highly automated modular system that monitors Dark Web services and fuses the collected data in a single analytics framework. BlackWidow relies on a Docker-based micro service architecture which permits the combination of both preexisting and customized machine learning tools. BlackWidow represents all extracted data and the corresponding relationships extracted from posts in a large knowledge graph, which is made available to its security analyst users for search and interactive visual exploration. Using BlackWidow, we conduct a study of seven popular services on the Deep and Dark Web across three different languages with almost 100,000 users. Within less than two days of monitoring time, BlackWidow managed to collect years of relevant information in the areas of cyber security and fraud monitoring. We show that BlackWidow can infer relationships between authors and forums and detect trends for cybersecurity-related topics. Finally, we discuss exemplary case studies surrounding leaked data and preparation for malicious activity.

Schäfer, Matthias, Leu, Patrick, Lenders, Vincent, Schmitt, Jens.  2016.  Secure Motion Verification Using the Doppler Effect. Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. :135–145.

Future transportation systems highly rely on the integrity of spatial information provided by their means of transportation such as vehicles and planes. In critical applications (e.g. collision avoidance), tampering with this data can result in life-threatening situations. It is therefore essential for the safety of these systems to securely verify this information. While there is a considerable body of work on the secure verification of locations, movement of nodes has only received little attention in the literature. This paper proposes a new method to securely verify spatial movement of a mobile sender in all dimensions, i.e., position, speed, and direction. Our scheme uses Doppler shift measurements from different locations to verify a prover's motion. We provide formal proof for the security of the scheme and demonstrate its applicability to air traffic communications. Our results indicate that it is possible to reliably verify the motion of aircraft in currently operational systems with an equal error rate of zero.