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Stoughton, A., Varia, M..  2017.  Mechanizing the Proof of Adaptive, Information-Theoretic Security of Cryptographic Protocols in the Random Oracle Model. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :83–99.

We report on our research on proving the security of multi-party cryptographic protocols using the EASYCRYPT proof assistant. We work in the computational model using the sequence of games approach, and define honest-butcurious (semi-honest) security using a variation of the real/ideal paradigm in which, for each protocol party, an adversary chooses protocol inputs in an attempt to distinguish the party's real and ideal games. Our proofs are information-theoretic, instead of being based on complexity theory and computational assumptions. We employ oracles (e.g., random oracles for hashing) whose encapsulated states depend on dynamically-made, nonprogrammable random choices. By limiting an adversary's oracle use, one may obtain concrete upper bounds on the distances between a party's real and ideal games that are expressed in terms of game parameters. Furthermore, our proofs work for adaptive adversaries, ones that, when choosing the value of a protocol input, may condition this choice on their current protocol view and oracle knowledge. We provide an analysis in EASYCRYPT of a three party private count retrieval protocol. We emphasize the lessons learned from completing this proof.

Stoykov, Stoyko.  2019.  Risk Management as a Strategic Management Element in the Security System. 2019 International Conference on Creative Business for Smart and Sustainable Growth (CREBUS). :1–4.
Strategic management and security risk management are part of the general government of the country, and therefore it is not possible to examine it separately and even if it was, one separate examination would not have give us a complete idea of how to implement this process. A modern understanding of the strategic security management requires not only continuous efforts to improve security policy formation and implementation but also new approaches and particular solutions to modernize the security system by making it adequate to the requirements of the dynamic security environment.
Strackx, Raoul, Piessens, Frank.  2016.  Developing Secure SGX Enclaves: New Challenges on the Horizon. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on System Software for Trusted Execution. :3:1–3:2.

The combination of (1) hard to eradicate low-level vulnerabilities, (2) a large trusted computing base written in a memory-unsafe language and (3) a desperate need to provide strong software security guarantees, led to the development of protected-module architectures. Such architectures provide strong isolation of protected modules: Security of code and data depends only on a module's own implementation. In this paper we discuss how such protected modules should be written. From an academic perspective it is clear that the future lies with memory-safe languages. Unfortunately, from a business and management perspective, that is a risky path and will remain so in the near future. The use of well-known but memory-unsafe languages such as C and C++ seem inevitable. We argue that the academic world should take another look at the automatic hardening of software written in such languages to mitigate low-level security vulnerabilities. This is a well-studied topic for full applications, but protected-module architectures introduce a new, and much more challenging environment. Porting existing security measures to a protected-module setting without a thorough security analysis may even harm security of the protected modules they try to protect.

Strasburg, Chris, Basu, Samik, Wong, Johnny.  2016.  A Cross-Domain Comparable Measurement Framework to Quantify Intrusion Detection Effectiveness. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Cyber and Information Security Research Conference. :11:1–11:8.
As the frequency, severity, and sophistication of cyber attacks increase, along with our dependence on reliable computing infrastructure, the role of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) gaining importance. One of the challenges in deploying an IDS stems from selecting a combination of detectors that are relevant and accurate for the environment where security is being considered. In this work, we propose a new measurement approach to address two key obstacles: the base-rate fallacy, and the unit of analysis problem. Our key contribution is to utilize the notion of a `signal', an indicator of an event that is observable to an IDS, as the measurement target, and apply the multiple instance paradigm (from machine learning) to enable cross-comparable measures regardless of the unit of analysis. To support our approach, we present a detailed case study and provide empirical examples of the effectiveness of both the model and measure by demonstrating the automated construction, optimization, and correlation of signals from different domains of observation (e.g. network based, host based, application based) and using different IDS techniques (signature based, anomaly based).
Strasburg, Chris, Basu, Samik, Wong, Johnny.  2016.  A Cross-Domain Comparable Measurement Framework to Quantify Intrusion Detection Effectiveness. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Cyber and Information Security Research Conference. :11:1–11:8.

As the frequency, severity, and sophistication of cyber attacks increase, along with our dependence on reliable computing infrastructure, the role of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) gaining importance. One of the challenges in deploying an IDS stems from selecting a combination of detectors that are relevant and accurate for the environment where security is being considered. In this work, we propose a new measurement approach to address two key obstacles: the base-rate fallacy, and the unit of analysis problem. Our key contribution is to utilize the notion of a `signal', an indicator of an event that is observable to an IDS, as the measurement target, and apply the multiple instance paradigm (from machine learning) to enable cross-comparable measures regardless of the unit of analysis. To support our approach, we present a detailed case study and provide empirical examples of the effectiveness of both the model and measure by demonstrating the automated construction, optimization, and correlation of signals from different domains of observation (e.g. network based, host based, application based) and using different IDS techniques (signature based, anomaly based).

Strasser, Shane, Goodman, Rollie, Sheppard, John, Butcher, Stephyn.  2016.  A New Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 2016. :53–60.

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been shown to perform very well on a wide range of optimization problems. One of the drawbacks to PSO is that the base algorithm assumes continuous variables. In this paper, we present a version of PSO that is able to optimize over discrete variables. This new PSO algorithm, which we call Integer and Categorical PSO (ICPSO), incorporates ideas from Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) in that particles represent probability distributions rather than solution values, and the PSO update modifies the probability distributions. In this paper, we describe our new algorithm and compare its performance against other discrete PSO algorithms. In our experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms comparable methods on both discrete benchmark functions and NK landscapes, a mathematical framework that generates tunable fitness landscapes for evaluating EAs.

Straub, J..  2020.  Modeling Attack, Defense and Threat Trees and the Cyber Kill Chain, ATT CK and STRIDE Frameworks as Blackboard Architecture Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :148—153.

Multiple techniques for modeling cybersecurity attacks and defense have been developed. The use of tree- structures as well as techniques proposed by several firms (such as Lockheed Martin's Cyber Kill Chain, Microsoft's STRIDE and the MITRE ATT&CK frameworks) have all been demonstrated. These approaches model actions that can be taken to attack or stopped to secure infrastructure and other resources, at different levels of detail.This paper builds on prior work on using the Blackboard Architecture for cyberwarfare and proposes a generalized solution for modeling framework/paradigm-based attacks that go beyond the deployment of a single exploit against a single identified target. The Blackboard Architecture Cyber Command Entity attack Route (BACCER) identification system combines rules and facts that implement attack type determination and attack decision making logic with actions that implement reconnaissance techniques and attack and defense actions. BACCER's efficacy to model examples of tree-structures and other models is demonstrated herein.

Straub, Jeremy.  2019.  Cyber Mutual Assured Destruction as a System of Systems and the Implications for System Design. 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering (SoSE). :137—139.

Mutual assured destruction is a Cold War era principle of deterrence through causing your enemy to fear that you can destroy them to at least the same extent that they can destroy you. It is based on the threat of retaliation and requires systems that can either be triggered after an enemy attack is launched and before the destructive capability is destroyed or systems that can survive an initial attack and be launched in response. During the Cold War, the weapons of mutual assured destructions were nuclear. However, with the incredible reliance on computers for everything from power generation control to banking to agriculture logistics, a cyber attack mutual assured destruction scenario is plausible. This paper presents this concept and considers the deterrent need, to prevent such a crippling attack from ever being launched, from a system of systems perspective.

Stroup, Ronald L., Niewoehner, Kevin R..  2019.  Application of Artificial Intelligence in the National Airspace System – A Primer. 2019 Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS). :1–14.

The National Airspace System (NAS), as a portion of the US' transportation system, has not yet begun to model or adopt integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology. However, users of the NAS, i.e., Air transport operators, UAS operators, etc. are beginning to use this technology throughout their operations. At issue within the broader aviation marketplace, is the continued search for a solution set to the persistent daily delays and schedule perturbations that occur within the NAS. Despite billions invested through the NAS Modernization Program, the delays persist in the face of reduced demand for commercial routings. Every delay represents an economic loss to commercial transport operators, passengers, freighters, and any business depending on the transportation performance. Therefore, the FAA needs to begin to address from an advanced concepts perspective, what this wave of new technology will affect as it is brought to bear on various operations performance parameters, including safety, security, efficiency, and resiliency solution sets. This paper is the first in a series of papers we are developing to explore the application of AI in the National Airspace System (NAS). This first paper is meant to get everyone in the aviation community on the same page, a primer if you will, to start the technical discussions. This paper will define AI; the capabilities associated with AI; current use cases within the aviation ecosystem; and how to prepare for insertion of AI in the NAS. The next series of papers will look at NAS Operations Theory utilizing AI capabilities and eventually leading to a future intelligent NAS (iNAS) environment.

Strub, Florian, Gaudel, Romaric, Mary, Jérémie.  2016.  Hybrid Recommender System Based on Autoencoders. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Deep Learning for Recommender Systems. :11–16.

A standard model for Recommender Systems is the Matrix Completion setting: given partially known matrix of ratings given by users (rows) to items (columns), infer the unknown ratings. In the last decades, few attempts where done to handle that objective with Neural Networks, but recently an architecture based on Autoencoders proved to be a promising approach. In current paper, we enhanced that architecture (i) by using a loss function adapted to input data with missing values, and (ii) by incorporating side information. The experiments demonstrate that while side information only slightly improve the test error averaged on all users/items, it has more impact on cold users/items.

Stubbs, J. J., Birch, G. C., Woo, B. L., Kouhestani, C. G..  2017.  Physical security assessment with convolutional neural network transfer learning. 2017 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1–6.

Deep learning techniques have demonstrated the ability to perform a variety of object recognition tasks using visible imager data; however, deep learning has not been implemented as a means to autonomously detect and assess targets of interest in a physical security system. We demonstrate the use of transfer learning on a convolutional neural network (CNN) to significantly reduce training time while keeping detection accuracy of physical security relevant targets high. Unlike many detection algorithms employed by video analytics within physical security systems, this method does not rely on temporal data to construct a background scene; targets of interest can halt motion indefinitely and still be detected by the implemented CNN. A key advantage of using deep learning is the ability for a network to improve over time. Periodic retraining can lead to better detection and higher confidence rates. We investigate training data size versus CNN test accuracy using physical security video data. Due to the large number of visible imagers, significant volume of data collected daily, and currently deployed human in the loop ground truth data, physical security systems present a unique environment that is well suited for analysis via CNNs. This could lead to the creation of algorithmic element that reduces human burden and decreases human analyzed nuisance alarms.

Stuckman, J., Walden, J., Scandariato, R..  2017.  The Effect of Dimensionality Reduction on Software Vulnerability Prediction Models. IEEE Transactions on Reliability. 66:17–37.

Statistical prediction models can be an effective technique to identify vulnerable components in large software projects. Two aspects of vulnerability prediction models have a profound impact on their performance: 1) the features (i.e., the characteristics of the software) that are used as predictors and 2) the way those features are used in the setup of the statistical learning machinery. In a previous work, we compared models based on two different types of features: software metrics and term frequencies (text mining features). In this paper, we broaden the set of models we compare by investigating an array of techniques for the manipulation of said features. These techniques fall under the umbrella of dimensionality reduction and have the potential to improve the ability of a prediction model to localize vulnerabilities. We explore the role of dimensionality reduction through a series of cross-validation and cross-project prediction experiments. Our results show that in the case of software metrics, a dimensionality reduction technique based on confirmatory factor analysis provided an advantage when performing cross-project prediction, yielding the best F-measure for the predictions in five out of six cases. In the case of text mining, feature selection can make the prediction computationally faster, but no dimensionality reduction technique provided any other notable advantage.

Su, C., Santoso, B., Li, Y., Deng, R. H., Huang, X..  2017.  Universally Composable RFID Mutual Authentication. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 14:83–94.

Universally Composable (UC) framework provides the strongest security notion for designing fully trusted cryptographic protocols, and it is very challenging on applying UC security in the design of RFID mutual authentication protocols. In this paper, we formulate the necessary conditions for achieving UC secure RFID mutual authentication protocols which can be fully trusted in arbitrary environment, and indicate the inadequacy of some existing schemes under the UC framework. We define the ideal functionality for RFID mutual authentication and propose the first UC secure RFID mutual authentication protocol based on public key encryption and certain trusted third parties which can be modeled as functionalities. We prove the security of our protocol under the strongest adversary model assuming both the tags' and readers' corruptions. We also present two (public) key update protocols for the cases of multiple readers: one uses Message Authentication Code (MAC) and the other uses trusted certificates in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Furthermore, we address the relations between our UC framework and the zero-knowledge privacy model proposed by Deng et al. [1].

Su, Chunmei, Li, Yonggang, Mao, Wen, Hu, Shangcheng.  2018.  Information Network Risk Assessment Based on AHP and Neural Network. 2018 10th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :227—231.
This paper analyzes information network security risk assessment methods and models. Firstly an improved AHP method is proposed to assign the value of assets for solving the problem of risk judgment matrix consistency effectively. And then the neural network technology is proposed to construct the neural network model corresponding to the risk judgment matrix for evaluating the individual risk of assets objectively, the methods for calculating the asset risk value and system risk value are given. Finally some application results are given. Practice proves that the methods are correct and effective, which has been used in information network security risk assessment application and offers a good foundation for the implementation of the automatic assessment.
Su, Dong, Cao, Jianneng, Li, Ninghui, Bertino, Elisa, Jin, Hongxia.  2016.  Differentially Private K-Means Clustering. Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :26–37.

There are two broad approaches for differentially private data analysis. The interactive approach aims at developing customized differentially private algorithms for various data mining tasks. The non-interactive approach aims at developing differentially private algorithms that can output a synopsis of the input dataset, which can then be used to support various data mining tasks. In this paper we study the effectiveness of the two approaches on differentially private k-means clustering. We develop techniques to analyze the empirical error behaviors of the existing interactive and non-interactive approaches. Based on the analysis, we propose an improvement of DPLloyd which is a differentially private version of the Lloyd algorithm. We also propose a non-interactive approach EUGkM which publishes a differentially private synopsis for k-means clustering. Results from extensive and systematic experiments support our analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of our improvement on DPLloyd and the proposed EUGkM algorithm.

Su, Fang-Hsiang, Bell, Jonathan, Harvey, Kenneth, Sethumadhavan, Simha, Kaiser, Gail, Jebara, Tony.  2016.  Code Relatives: Detecting Similarly Behaving Software. Proceedings of the 2016 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering. :702–714.

Detecting “similar code” is useful for many software engineering tasks. Current tools can help detect code with statically similar syntactic and–or semantic features (code clones) and with dynamically similar functional input/output (simions). Unfortunately, some code fragments that behave similarly at the finer granularity of their execution traces may be ignored. In this paper, we propose the term “code relatives” to refer to code with similar execution behavior. We define code relatives and then present DyCLINK, our approach to detecting code relatives within and across codebases. DyCLINK records instruction-level traces from sample executions, organizes the traces into instruction-level dynamic dependence graphs, and employs our specialized subgraph matching algorithm to efficiently compare the executions of candidate code relatives. In our experiments, DyCLINK analyzed 422+ million prospective subgraph matches in only 43 minutes. We compared DyCLINK to one static code clone detector from the community and to our implementation of a dynamic simion detector. The results show that DyCLINK effectively detects code relatives with a reasonable analysis time.

Su, Fang-Hsiang, Bell, Jonathan, Kaiser, Gail, Ray, Baishakhi.  2018.  Obfuscation Resilient Search Through Executable Classification. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM SIGPLAN International Workshop on Machine Learning and Programming Languages. :20-30.

Android applications are usually obfuscated before release, making it difficult to analyze them for malware presence or intellectual property violations. Obfuscators might hide the true intent of code by renaming variables and/or modifying program structures. It is challenging to search for executables relevant to an obfuscated application for developers to analyze efficiently. Prior approaches toward obfuscation resilient search have relied on certain structural parts of apps remaining as landmarks, un-touched by obfuscation. For instance, some prior approaches have assumed that the structural relationships between identifiers are not broken by obfuscators; others have assumed that control flow graphs maintain their structures. Both approaches can be easily defeated by a motivated obfuscator. We present a new approach, MACNETO, to search for programs relevant to obfuscated executables leveraging deep learning and principal components on instructions. MACNETO makes few assumptions about the kinds of modifications that an obfuscator might perform. We show that it has high search precision for executables obfuscated by a state-of-the-art obfuscator that changes control flow. Further, we also demonstrate the potential of MACNETO to help developers understand executables, where MACNETO infers keywords (which are from relevant un-obfuscated programs) for obfuscated executables.

Su, G., Bai, G..  2017.  The undetectable clock cycle sensitive hardware trojan. 2017 International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1–2.

We have proposed a method of designing embedded clock-cycle-sensitive Hardware Trojans (HTs) to manipulate finite state machine (FSM). By using pipeline to choose and customize critical path, the Trojans can facilitate a series of attack and need no redundant circuits. One cannot detect any malicious architecture through logic analysis because the proposed circuitry is the part of FSM. Furthermore, this kind of HTs alerts the trusted systems designers to the importance of clock tree structure. The attackers may utilize modified clock to bypass certain security model or change the circuit behavior.

Su, H., Zwolinski, M., Halak, B..  2018.  A Machine Learning Attacks Resistant Two Stage Physical Unclonable Functions Design. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :52-55.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been designed for many security applications such as identification, authentication of devices and key generation, especially for lightweight electronics. Traditional approaches to enhancing security, such as hash functions, may be expensive and resource dependent. However, modelling attacks using machine learning (ML) show the vulnerability of most PUFs. In this paper, a combination of a 32-bit current mirror and 16-bit arbiter PUFs in 65nm CMOS technology is proposed to improve resilience against modelling attacks. Both PUFs are vulnerable to machine learning attacks and we reduce the output prediction rate from 99.2% and 98.8% individually, to 60%.

Su, H., Halak, B., Zwolinski, M..  2019.  Two-Stage Architectures for Resilient Lightweight PUFs. 2019 IEEE 4th International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :19–24.
The following topics are dealt with: Internet of Things; invasive software; security of data; program testing; reverse engineering; product codes; binary codes; decoding; maximum likelihood decoding; field programmable gate arrays.
Su, J. C., Wu, C., Jiang, H., Maji, S..  2017.  Reasoning About Fine-Grained Attribute Phrases Using Reference Games. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :418–427.

We present a framework for learning to describe finegrained visual differences between instances using attribute phrases. Attribute phrases capture distinguishing aspects of an object (e.g., “propeller on the nose” or “door near the wing” for airplanes) in a compositional manner. Instances within a category can be described by a set of these phrases and collectively they span the space of semantic attributes for a category. We collect a large dataset of such phrases by asking annotators to describe several visual differences between a pair of instances within a category. We then learn to describe and ground these phrases to images in the context of a reference game between a speaker and a listener. The goal of a speaker is to describe attributes of an image that allows the listener to correctly identify it within a pair. Data collected in a pairwise manner improves the ability of the speaker to generate, and the ability of the listener to interpret visual descriptions. Moreover, due to the compositionality of attribute phrases, the trained listeners can interpret descriptions not seen during training for image retrieval, and the speakers can generate attribute-based explanations for differences between previously unseen categories. We also show that embedding an image into the semantic space of attribute phrases derived from listeners offers 20% improvement in accuracy over existing attributebased representations on the FGVC-aircraft dataset.

Su, Jiawei, Yoshioka, Katsunari, Shikata, Junji, Matsumoto, Tsutomu.  2016.  An Efficient Method for Detecting Obfuscated Suspicious JavaScript Based on Text Pattern Analysis. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International on Workshop on Traffic Measurements for Cybersecurity. :3–11.

The malicious JavaScript is a common springboard for attackers to launch several types of network attacks, such as Drive-by-Download and malicious PDF delivery attack. In order to elude detection of signature matching, malicious JavaScript is often packed (so-called "obfuscation") with diversified algorithms therefore the occurrence of obfuscation is always a good pointer for potential maliciousness. In this investigation, we propose a light weight approach for quickly filtering obfuscated JavaScript by a novel method of tokenizing JavaScript text at letter level and information-theoretic measures, based on the previous work in the domain of detecting obfuscated malicious code as well as the pattern analysis of natural languages. The new approach is apparently time efficient compared to existing systems since it processes much less objects while it is also proved to be able to reach the acceptable detection accuracies.

Su, Jinshu, Chen, Shuhui, Han, Biao, Xu, Chengcheng, Wang, Xin.  2016.  A 60Gbps DPI Prototype Based on Memory-Centric FPGA. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGCOMM Conference. :627–628.

Deep packet inspection (DPI) is widely used in content-aware network applications to detect string features. It is of vital importance to improve the DPI performance due to the ever-increasing link speed. In this demo, we propose a novel DPI architecture with a hierarchy memory structure and parallel matching engines based on memory-centric FPGA. The implemented DPI prototype is able to provide up to 60Gbps full-text string matching throughput and fast rules update speed.

Su, Jinsong, Zeng, Jiali, Xiong, Deyi, Liu, Yang, Wang, Mingxuan, Xie, Jun.  2018.  A Hierarchy-to-Sequence Attentional Neural Machine Translation Model. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. 26:623—632.

Although sequence-to-sequence attentional neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved great progress recently, it is confronted with two challenges: learning optimal model parameters for long parallel sentences and well exploiting different scopes of contexts. In this paper, partially inspired by the idea of segmenting a long sentence into short clauses, each of which can be easily translated by NMT, we propose a hierarchy-to-sequence attentional NMT model to handle these two challenges. Our encoder takes the segmented clause sequence as input and explores a hierarchical neural network structure to model words, clauses, and sentences at different levels, particularly with two layers of recurrent neural networks modeling semantic compositionality at the word and clause level. Correspondingly, the decoder sequentially translates segmented clauses and simultaneously applies two types of attention models to capture contexts of interclause and intraclause for translation prediction. In this way, we can not only improve parameter learning, but also well explore different scopes of contexts for translation. Experimental results on Chinese-English and English-German translation demonstrate the superiorities of the proposed model over the conventional NMT model.

Su, K.-M., Liu, I.-H., Li, J.-S..  2020.  The Risk of Industrial Control System Programmable Logic Controller Default Configurations. 2020 International Computer Symposium (ICS). :443—447.
In recent years, many devices in industrial control systems (ICS) equip Ethernet modules for more efficient communication and more fiexible deployment. Many communication protocols of those devices are based on internet protocol, which brings the above benefits but also makes it easier to access by anyone including attackers. In the case of using the factory default configurations, we wiiˆ demonstrate how to easily modify the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) program through the Integrated Development Environment provided by the manufacturer under the security protection of PLC not set properly and discuss the severity of it.