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2021
Plappert, Christian, Zelle, Daniel, Gadacz, Henry, Rieke, Roland, Scheuermann, Dirk, Krauß, Christoph.  2021.  Attack Surface Assessment for Cybersecurity Engineering in the Automotive Domain. 2021 29th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP). :266–275.
Connected smart cars enable new attacks that may have serious consequences. Thus, the development of new cars must follow a cybersecurity engineering process as defined for example in ISO/SAE 21434. A central part of such a process is the threat and risk assessment including an attack feasibility rating. In this paper, we present an attack surface assessment with focus on the attack feasibility rating compliant to ISO/SAE 21434. We introduce a reference architecture with assets constituting the attack surface, the attack feasibility rating for these assets, and the application of this rating on typical use cases. The attack feasibility rating assigns attacks and assets to an evaluation of the attacker dimensions such as the required knowledge and the feasibility of attacks derived from it. Our application of sample use cases shows how this rating can be used to assess the feasibility of an entire attack path. The attack feasibility rating can be used as a building block in a threat and risk assessment according to ISO/SAE 21434.
Lit, Yanyan, Kim, Sara, Sy, Eric.  2021.  A Survey on Amazon Alexa Attack Surfaces. 2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–7.
Since being launched in 2014, Alexa, Amazon's versatile cloud-based voice service, is now active in over 100 million households worldwide [1]. Alexa's user-friendly, personalized vocal experience offers customers a more natural way of interacting with cutting-edge technology by allowing the ability to directly dictate commands to the assistant. Now in the present year, the Alexa service is more accessible than ever, available on hundreds of millions of devices from not only Amazon but third-party device manufacturers. Unfortunately, that success has also been the source of concern and controversy. The success of Alexa is based on its effortless usability, but in turn, that has led to a lack of sufficient security. This paper surveys various attacks against Amazon Alexa ecosystem including attacks against the frontend voice capturing and the cloud backend voice command recognition and processing. Overall, we have identified six attack surfaces covering the lifecycle of Alexa voice interaction that spans several stages including voice data collection, transmission, processing and storage. We also discuss the potential mitigation solutions for each attack surface to better improve Alexa or other voice assistants in terms of security and privacy.
2020
Susukailo, Vitalii, Opirskyy, Ivan, Vasylyshyn, Sviatoslav.  2020.  Analysis of the attack vectors used by threat actors during the pandemic. 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Information Technologies (CSIT). 2:261—264.

This article describes attacks methods, vectors and technics used by threat actors during pandemic situations in the world. Identifies common targets of threat actors and cyber-attack tactics. The article analyzes cybersecurity challenges and specifies possible solutions and improvements in cybersecurity. Defines cybersecurity controls, which should be taken against analyzed attack vectors.

Gillen, R. E., Carter, J. M., Craig, C., Johnson, J. A., Scott, S. L..  2020.  Assessing Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Configurations for Industrial Control Systems. 2020 IEEE 21st International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :360—366.

To reduce cost and ease maintenance, industrial control systems (ICS) have adopted Ethernetbased interconnections that integrate operational technology (OT) systems with information technology (IT) networks. This integration has made these critical systems vulnerable to attack. Security solutions tailored to ICS environments are an active area of research. Anomalybased network intrusion detection systems are well-suited for these environments. Often these systems must be optimized for their specific environment. In prior work, we introduced a method for assessing the impact of various anomaly-based network IDS settings on security. This paper reviews the experimental outcomes when we applied our method to a full-scale ICS test bed using actual attacks. Our method provides new and valuable data to operators enabling more informed decisions about IDS configurations.

Kummerow, A., Monsalve, C., Rösch, D., Schäfer, K., Nicolai, S..  2020.  Cyber-physical data stream assessment incorporating Digital Twins in future power systems. 2020 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST). :1—6.

Reliable and secure grid operations become more and more challenging in context of increasing IT/OT convergence and decreasing dynamic margins in today's power systems. To ensure the correct operation of monitoring and control functions in control centres, an intelligent assessment of the different information sources is necessary to provide a robust data source in case of critical physical events as well as cyber-attacks. Within this paper, a holistic data stream assessment methodology is proposed using an expert knowledge based cyber-physical situational awareness for different steady and transient system states. This approach goes beyond existing techniques by combining high-resolution PMU data with SCADA information as well as Digital Twin and AI based anomaly detection functionalities.

Guo, Y., Wang, B., Hughes, D., Lewis, M., Sycara, K..  2020.  Designing Context-Sensitive Norm Inverse Reinforcement Learning Framework for Norm-Compliant Autonomous Agents. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :618—625.

Human behaviors are often prohibited, or permitted by social norms. Therefore, if autonomous agents interact with humans, they also need to reason about various legal rules, social and ethical social norms, so they would be trusted and accepted by humans. Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL) can be used for the autonomous agents to learn social norm-compliant behavior via expert demonstrations. However, norms are context-sensitive, i.e. different norms get activated in different contexts. For example, the privacy norm is activated for a domestic robot entering a bathroom where a person may be present, whereas it is not activated for the robot entering the kitchen. Representing various contexts in the state space of the robot, as well as getting expert demonstrations under all possible tasks and contexts is extremely challenging. Inspired by recent work on Modularized Normative MDP (MNMDP) and early work on context-sensitive RL, we propose a new IRL framework, Context-Sensitive Norm IRL (CNIRL). CNIRL treats states and contexts separately, and assumes that the expert determines the priority of every possible norm in the environment, where each norm is associated with a distinct reward function. The agent chooses the action to maximize its cumulative rewards. We present the CNIRL model and show that its computational complexity is scalable in the number of norms. We also show via two experimental scenarios that CNIRL can handle problems with changing context spaces.

Sato, Y., Yanagitani, T..  2020.  Giga-hertz piezoelectric epitaxial PZT transducer for the application of fingerprint imaging. 2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :1—3.

The fingerprint sensor based on pMUTs was reported [1]. Spatial resolution of the image depends on the size of the acoustic source when a plane wave is used. If the size of the acoustic source is smaller, piezoelectric films with high dielectric constant are required. In this study, in order to obtain small acoustic source, we proposed Pb(Zrx Th-x)O3 (PZT) epitaxial transducers with high dielectric constant. PbTiO3 (PTO) epitaxial films were grown on conductive La-SrTiO3 (STO) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. Longitudinal wave conversion loss of PTO transducers was measured by a network analyzer. The thermoplastic elastomer was used instead of real fingerprint. We confirmed that conversion loss of piezoelectric film/substrate structure was increased by contacting the elastomer due the change of reflection coefficient of the substrate bottom/elastomer interface. Minimum conversion loss images were obtained by mechanically scanning the soft probe on the transducer surface. We achieved the detection of the fingerprint phantom based on the elastomer in the GHz.

Mavroudis, V., Svenda, P..  2020.  JCMathLib: Wrapper Cryptographic Library for Transparent and Certifiable JavaCard Applets. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :89—96.

The JavaCard multi-application platform is now deployed to over twenty billion smartcards, used in various applications ranging from banking payments and authentication tokens to SIM cards and electronic documents. In most of those use cases, access to various cryptographic primitives is required. The standard JavaCard API provides a basic level of access to such functionality (e.g., RSA encryption) but does not expose low-level cryptographic primitives (e.g., elliptic curve operations) and essential data types (e.g., Integers). Developers can access such features only through proprietary, manufacturer-specific APIs. Unfortunately, such APIs significantly reduce the interoperability and certification transparency of the software produced as they require non-disclosure agreements (NDA) that prohibit public sharing of the applet's source code.We introduce JCMathLib, an open library that provides an intermediate layer realizing essential data types and low-level cryptographic primitives from high-level operations. To achieve this, we introduce a series of optimization techniques for resource-constrained platforms that make optimal use of the underlying hardware, while having a small memory footprint. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first generic library for low-level cryptographic operations in JavaCards that does not rely on a proprietary API.Without any disclosure limitations, JCMathLib has the potential to increase transparency by enabling open code sharing, release of research prototypes, and public code audits. Moreover, JCMathLib can help resolve the conflict between strict open-source licenses such as GPL and proprietary APIs available only under an NDA. This is of particular importance due to the introduction of JavaCard API v3.1, which targets specifically IoT devices, where open-source development might be more common than in the relatively closed world of government-issued electronic documents.

Volkov, A. I., Semin, V. G., Khakimullin, E. R..  2020.  Modeling the Structures of Threats to Information Security Risks based on a Fuzzy Approach. 2020 International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT QM IS). :132—135.

The article deals with the development and implementation of a method for synthesizing structures of threats and risks to information security based on a fuzzy approach. We consider a method for modeling threat structures based on structural abstractions: aggregation, generalization, and Association. It is shown that the considered forms of structural abstractions allow implementing the processes of Ascending and Descending inheritance. characteristics of the threats. A database of fuzzy rules based on procedural abstractions has been developed and implemented in the fuzzy logic tool environment Fussy Logic.

Staschulat, J., Lütkebohle, I., Lange, R..  2020.  The rclc Executor: Domain-specific deterministic scheduling mechanisms for ROS applications on microcontrollers: work-in-progress. 2020 International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT). :18—19.

Robots are networks of a variety of computing devices, such as powerful computing platforms but also tiny microcontrollers. The Robot Operating System (ROS) is the dominant framework for powerful computing devices. While ROS version 2 adds important features like quality of service and security, it cannot be directly applied to microcontrollers because of its large memory footprint. The micro-ROS project has ported the ROS 2 API to microcontrollers. However, the standard ROS 2 concepts are not enough for real-time performance: In the ROS 2 release “Foxy”, the standard ROS 2 Executor, which is the central component responsible for handling timers and incoming message data, is neither real-time capable nor deterministic. Domain-specific requirements of mobile robots, like sense-plan-act control loops, cannot be addressed with the standard ROS 2 Executor. In this paper, we present an advanced Executor for the ROS 2 C API which provides deterministic scheduling and supports domain-specific requirements. A proof-of-concept is demonstrated on a 32-bit microcontroller.

Schaerer, Jakob, Zumbrunn, Severin, Braun, Torsten.  2020.  Veritaa - The Graph of Trust. 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS). :168—175.

Today the integrity of digital documents and the authenticity of their origin is often hard to verify. Existing Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) are capable of certifying digital identities but do not provide solutions to immutably store signatures, and the process of certification is often not transparent. In this work we propose Veritaa, a Distributed Public Key Infrastructure and Signature Store (DPKISS). The major innovation of Veritaa is the Graph of Trust, a directed graph that uses relations between identity claims to certify the identities and stores signed relations to digital document identifiers. The distributed architecture of Veritaa and the Graph of Trust enables a transparent certification process. To ensure non-repudiation and immutability of all actions that have been signed on the Graph of Trust, an application specific Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is used as secure storage. In this work a reference implementation of the proposed architecture was designed and implemented. Furthermore, a testbed was created and used for the evaluation of Veritaa. The evaluation of Veritaa shows the benefits and the high performance of the proposed architecture.

Johnson, N., Near, J. P., Hellerstein, J. M., Song, D..  2020.  Chorus: a Programming Framework for Building Scalable Differential Privacy Mechanisms. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :535–551.
Differential privacy is fast becoming the gold standard in enabling statistical analysis of data while protecting the privacy of individuals. However, practical use of differential privacy still lags behind research progress because research prototypes cannot satisfy the scalability requirements of production deployments. To address this challenge, we present Chorus, a framework for building scalable differential privacy mechanisms which is based on cooperation between the mechanism itself and a high-performance production database management system (DBMS). We demonstrate the use of Chorus to build the first highly scalable implementations of complex mechanisms like Weighted PINQ, MWEM, and the matrix mechanism. We report on our experience deploying Chorus at Uber, and evaluate its scalability on real-world queries.
Pialov, K., Slutsky, R., Maizel, A..  2020.  Coupled calculation of hydrodynamic and acoustic characteristics in the far-field of the ship propulsor. 2020 International Conference on Dynamics and Vibroacoustics of Machines (DVM). :1–6.
This report provides a calculation example of hydrodynamic and acoustic characteristics of the ship propulsor using numerical modelling with the help of RANS-models and eddy-resolving approaches in the hydrodynamics task, acoustic analogy in the acoustics tasks and harmonic analysis of the propulsor under hydrodynamic loads.
Başkaya, D., Samet, R..  2020.  DDoS Attacks Detection by Using Machine Learning Methods on Online Systems. 2020 5th International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK). :52—57.
DDoS attacks impose serious threats to many large or small organizations; therefore DDoS attacks have to be detected as soon as possible. In this study, a methodology to detect DDoS attacks is proposed and implemented on online systems. In the scope of the proposed methodology, Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), C-Support Vector Machine (SVC) machine learning methods are used with scaling and feature reduction preprocessing methods and then effects of preprocesses on detection accuracy rates of HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) flood, TCP SYN (Transport Control Protocol Synchronize) flood, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) flood and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) flood DDoS attacks are analyzed. Obtained results showed that DDoS attacks can be detected with high accuracy of 99.2%.
Usman, S., Winarno, I., Sudarsono, A..  2020.  Implementation of SDN-based IDS to protect Virtualization Server against HTTP DoS attacks. 2020 International Electronics Symposium (IES). :195—198.
Virtualization and Software-defined Networking (SDN) are emerging technologies that play a major role in cloud computing. Cloud computing provides efficient utilization, high performance, and resource availability on demand. However, virtualization environments are vulnerable to various types of intrusion attacks that involve installing malicious software and denial of services (DoS) attacks. Utilizing SDN technology, makes the idea of SDN-based security applications attractive in the fight against DoS attacks. Network intrusion detection system (IDS) which is used to perform network traffic analysis as a detection system implemented on SDN networks to protect virtualization servers from HTTP DoS attacks. The experimental results show that SDN-based IDS is able to detect and mitigate HTTP DoS attacks effectively.
Kumar, S. A., Kumar, A., Bajaj, V., Singh, G. K..  2020.  An Improved Fuzzy Min–Max Neural Network for Data Classification. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems. 28:1910–1924.
Hyperbox classifier is an efficient tool for modern pattern classification problems due to its transparency and rigorous use of Euclidian geometry. Fuzzy min-max (FMM) network efficiently implements the hyperbox classifier, and has been modified several times to yield better classification accuracy. However, the obtained accuracy is not up to the mark. Therefore, in this paper, a new improved FMM (IFMM) network is proposed to increase the accuracy rate. In the proposed IFMM network, a modified constraint is employed to check the expandability of a hyperbox. It also uses semiperimeter of the hyperbox along with k-nearest mechanism to select the expandable hyperbox. In the proposed IFMM, the contraction rules of conventional FMM and enhanced FMM (EFMM) are also modified using semiperimeter of a hyperbox in order to balance the size of both overlapped hyperboxes. Experimental results show that the proposed IFMM network outperforms the FMM, k-nearest FMM, and EFMM by yielding more accuracy rate with less number of hyperboxes. The proposed methods are also applied to histopathological images to know the best magnification factor for classification.
Simon, L., Verma, A..  2020.  Improving Fuzzing through Controlled Compilation. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :34–52.
We observe that operations performed by standard compilers harm fuzzing because the optimizations and the Intermediate Representation (IR) lead to transformations that improve execution speed at the expense of fuzzing. To remedy this problem, we propose `controlled compilation', a set of techniques to automatically re-factor a program's source code and cherry pick beneficial compiler optimizations to improve fuzzing. We design, implement and evaluate controlled compilation by building a new toolchain with Clang/LLVM. We perform an evaluation on 10 open source projects and compare the results of AFL to state-of-the-art grey-box fuzzers and concolic fuzzers. We show that when programs are compiled with this new toolchain, AFL covers 30 % new code on average and finds 21 additional bugs in real world programs. Our study reveals that controlled compilation often covers more code and finds more bugs than state-of-the-art fuzzing techniques, without the need to write a fuzzer from scratch or resort to advanced techniques. We identify two main reasons to explain why. First, it has proven difficult for researchers to appropriately configure existing fuzzers such as AFL. To address this problem, we provide guidelines and new LLVM passes to help automate AFL's configuration. This will enable researchers to perform a fairer comparison with AFL. Second, we find that current coverage-based evaluation measures (e.g. the total number of visited lines, edges or BBs) are inadequate because they lose valuable information such as which parts of a program a fuzzer actually visits and how consistently it does so. Coverage is considered a useful metric to evaluate a fuzzer's performance and devise a fuzzing strategy. However, the lack of a standard methodology for evaluating coverage remains a problem. To address this, we propose a rigorous evaluation methodology based on `qualitative coverage'. Qualitative coverage uniquely identifies each program line to help understand which lines are commonly visited by different fuzzers vs. which lines are visited only by a particular fuzzer. Throughout our study, we show the benefits of this new evaluation methodology. For example we provide valuable insights into the consistency of fuzzers, i.e. their ability to cover the same code or find the same bug across multiple independent runs. Overall, our evaluation methodology based on qualitative coverage helps to understand if a fuzzer performs better, worse, or is complementary to another fuzzer. This helps security practitioners adjust their fuzzing strategies.
Bronzin, T., Prole, B., Stipić, A., Pap, K..  2020.  Individualization of Anonymous Identities Using Artificial Intelligence (AI). 2020 43rd International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO). :1058–1063.

Individualization of anonymous identities using artificial intelligence - enables innovative human-computer interaction through the personalization of communication which is, at the same time, individual and anonymous. This paper presents possible approach for individualization of anonymous identities in real time. It uses computer vision and artificial intelligence to automatically detect and recognize person's age group, gender, human body measures, proportions and other specific personal characteristics. Collected data constitutes the so-called person's biometric footprint and are linked to a unique (but still anonymous) identity that is recorded in the computer system, along with other information that make up the profile of the person. Identity anonymization can be achieved by appropriate asymmetric encryption of the biometric footprint (with no additional personal information being stored) and integrity can be ensured using blockchain technology. Data collected in this manner is GDPR compliant.

Rehan, S., Singh, R..  2020.  Industrial and Home Automation, Control, Safety and Security System using Bolt IoT Platform. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :787—793.
This paper describes a system that comprises of control, safety and security subsystem for industries and homes. The entire system is based on the Bolt IoT platform. Using this system, the user can control the devices such as LEDs, speed of the fan or DC motor, monitor the temperature of the premises with an alert sub-system for critical temperatures through SMS and call, monitor the presence of anyone inside the premises with an alert sub-system about any intrusion through SMS and call. If the system is used specifically in any industry then instead of monitoring the temperature any other physical quantity, which is critical for that industry, can be monitored using suitable sensors. In addition, the cloud connectivity is provided to the system using the Bolt IoT module and temperature data is sent to the cloud where using machine-learning algorithm the future temperature is predicted to avoid any accidents in the future.
Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, Pippal, Ravi Singh.  2020.  Malicious Attack and Intrusion Prevention in IoT Network using Blockchain based Security Analysis. 2020 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). :380–385.
The Internet of Things (IoT) as a demanding technology require the best features of information security for effective development of the IoT based smart city and technological activity. There are huge number of recent security threats searching for some loopholes which are ready to exploit any network. Against the back-drop of recent rapidly growing technological advancement of IoT, security-threats have become a critical challenge which demand responsive and continuous action. As privacy and security exhibit an ever-present flourishing issue, so loopholes detection and analysis are indispensable process in the network. This paper presents Block chain based security analysis of data generated from IoT devices to prevent malicious attacks and intrusion in the IoT network.
Fauzan, A., Sukarno, P., Wardana, A. A..  2020.  Overhead Analysis of the Use of Digital Signature in MQTT Protocol for Constrained Device in the Internet of Things System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :415–420.
This paper presents an overhead analysis of the use of digital signature mechanisms in the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol for three classes of constrained-device. Because the resources provided by constrained-devices are very limited, the purpose of this overhead analysis is to help find out the advantages and disadvantages of each class of constrained-devices after a security mechanism has been applied, namely by applying a digital signature mechanism. The objective of using this digital signature mechanism is for providing integrity, that if the payload sent and received in its destination is still original and not changed during the transmission process. The overhead analysis aspects performed are including analyzing decryption time, signature verification performance, message delivery time, memory and flash usage in the three classes of constrained-device. Based on the overhead analysis result, it can be seen that for decryption time and signature verification performance, the Class-2 device is the fastest one. For message delivery time, the smallest time needed for receiving the payload is Class-l device. For memory usage, the Class-2 device is providing the biggest available memory and flash.
Sheptunov, Sergey A., Sukhanova, Natalia V..  2020.  The Problems of Design and Application of Switching Neural Networks in Creation of Artificial Intelligence. 2020 International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT QM IS). :428–431.
The new switching architecture of the neural networks was proposed. The switching neural networks consist of the neurons and the switchers. The goal is to reduce expenses on the artificial neural network design and training. For realization of complex models, algorithms and methods of management the neural networks of the big size are required. The number of the interconnection links “everyone with everyone” grows with the number of neurons. The training of big neural networks requires the resources of supercomputers. Time of training of neural networks also depends on the number of neurons in the network. Switching neural networks are divided into fragments connected by the switchers. Training of switcher neuron network is provided by fragments. On the basis of switching neural networks the devices of associative memory were designed with the number of neurons comparable to the human brain.
Song, M., Lind, M..  2020.  Towards Automated Generation of Function Models from P IDs. 2020 25th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). 1:1081—1084.
Although function model has been widely applied to develop various operator decision support systems, the modeling process is essentially a manual work, which takes significant efforts on knowledge acquisition. It would greatly improve the efficiency of modeling if relevant information can be automatically retrieved from engineering documents. This paper investigates the possibility of automated transformation from P&IDs to a function model called MFM via AutomationML. Semantics and modeling patterns of MFM are established in AutomationML, which can be utilized to convert plant topology models into MFM models. The proposed approach is demonstrated with a small use case. Further topics for extending the study are also discussed.
Illing, B., Westhoven, M., Gaspers, B., Smets, N., Brüggemann, B., Mathew, T..  2020.  Evaluation of Immersive Teleoperation Systems using Standardized Tasks and Measurements. 2020 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :278—285.

Despite advances regarding autonomous functionality for robots, teleoperation remains a means for performing delicate tasks in safety critical contexts like explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and ambiguous environments. Immersive stereoscopic displays have been proposed and developed in this regard, but bring about their own specific problems, e.g., simulator sickness. This work builds upon standardized test environments to yield reproducible comparisons between different robotic platforms. The focus was placed on testing three optronic systems of differing degrees of immersion: (1) A laptop display showing multiple monoscopic camera views, (2) an off-the-shelf virtual reality headset coupled with a pantilt-based stereoscopic camera, and (3) a so-called Telepresence Unit, providing fast pan, tilt, yaw rotation, stereoscopic view, and spatial audio. Stereoscopic systems yielded significant faster task completion only for the maneuvering task. As expected, they also induced Simulator Sickness among other results. However, the amount of Simulator Sickness varied between both stereoscopic systems. Collected data suggests that a higher degree of immersion combined with careful system design can reduce the to-be-expected increase of Simulator Sickness compared to the monoscopic camera baseline while making the interface subjectively more effective for certain tasks.

Shin, H. C., Chang, J., Na, K..  2020.  Anomaly Detection Algorithm Based on Global Object Map for Video Surveillance System. 2020 20th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS). :793—795.

Recently, smart video security systems have been active. The existing video security system is mainly a method of detecting a local abnormality of a unit camera. In this case, it is difficult to obtain the characteristics of each local region and the situation for the entire watching area. In this paper, we developed an object map for the entire surveillance area using a combination of surveillance cameras, and developed an algorithm to detect anomalies by learning normal situations. The surveillance camera in each area detects and tracks people and cars, and creates a local object map and transmits it to the server. The surveillance server combines each local maps to generate a global map for entire areas. Probability maps were automatically calculated from the global maps, and normal and abnormal decisions were performed through trained data about normal situations. For three reporting status: normal, caution, and warning, and the caution report performance shows that normal detection 99.99% and abnormal detection 86.6%.