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U, Shriya, S, Veena H.  2021.  Increasing Grid Power Transmission Using PV-STATCOM. 2021 6th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–5.
Renewable energy resource plays an important role due to increasing energy claim. Power generation by PV technology is one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources due to its clean, economical and sustainable property. Grid integrated PV systems plays an important role in power generation sector. As the energy demand is increasing day by day, the power transfer capability of transmission line is increasing which leads various problems like stability, increase in fault current, congestion etc. To overcome the problem, we can use either FACTS device or battery storage or construct additional lines which is cost effective. This paper deals with grid connected PV system, which functions as PV-STATCOM. Voltage and damping control are used to elevate the power transfer capacity and to achieve regulated voltage within the limits at the point of common coupling (PCC). The studies are performed on SMIB and the simulation is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.
Ucar, Seyhan, Coleri Ergen, Sinem, Ozkasap, Oznur, Tsonev, Dobroslav, Burchardt, Harald.  2016.  SecVLC: Secure Visible Light Communication for Military Vehicular Networks. Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Symposium on Mobility Management and Wireless Access. :123–129.

Technology coined as the vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is harmonizing with Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and Intelligent Traffic System (ITF). An application scenario of VANET is the military communication where vehicles move as a convoy on roadways, requiring secure and reliable communication. However, utilization of radio frequency (RF) communication in VANET limits its usage in military applications, due to the scarce frequency band and its vulnerability to security attacks. Visible Light Communication (VLC) has been recently introduced as a more secure alternative, limiting the reception of neighboring nodes with its directional transmission. However, secure vehicular VLC that ensures confidential data transfer among the participating vehicles, is an open problem. In this paper, we propose a secure military light communication protocol (SecVLC) for enabling efficient and secure data sharing. We use the directionality property of VLC to ensure that only target vehicles participate in the communication. Vehicles use full-duplex communication where infra-red (IR) is utilized to share a secret key and VLC is used to receive encrypted data. We experimentally demonstrate the suitability of SecVLC in outdoor scenarios at varying inter-vehicular distances with key metrics of interest, including the security, data packet delivery ratio and delay.

Uchida, Hikaru, Matsubara, Masaki, Wakabayashi, Kei, Morishima, Atsuyuki.  2020.  Human-in-the-loop Approach towards Dual Process AI Decisions. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3096–3098.
How to develop AI systems that can explain how they made decisions is one of the important and hot topics today. Inspired by the dual-process theory in psychology, this paper proposes a human-in-the-loop approach to develop System-2 AI that makes an inference logically and outputs interpretable explanation. Our proposed method first asks crowd workers to raise understandable features of objects of multiple classes and collect training data from the Internet to generate classifiers for the features. Logical decision rules with the set of generated classifiers can explain why each object is of a particular class. In our preliminary experiment, we applied our method to an image classification of Asian national flags and examined the effectiveness and issues of our method. In our future studies, we plan to combine the System-2 AI with System-1 AI (e.g., neural networks) to efficiently output decisions.
Uchnár, Matúš, Feciľak, Peter.  2019.  Behavioral malware analysis algorithm comparison. 2019 IEEE 17th World Symposium on Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI). :397–400.
Malware analysis and detection based on it is very important factor in the computer security. Despite of the enormous effort of companies making anti-malware solutions, it is usually not possible to respond to new malware in time and some computers will get infected. This shortcoming could be partially mitigated through using behavioral malware analysis. This work is aimed towards machine learning algorithms comparison for the behavioral malware analysis purposes.
Uda, Satoshi, Shikida, Mikifumi.  2016.  Challenges of Deploying PKI Based Client Digital Certification. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on SIGUCCS Annual Conference. :55–60.

We are confronted with the threat from the theft of user-id / password information caused by phishing attacks. Now authentication by using the user-id and password is no longer safe. We can use the PKI-based authentication as a safer authentication mechanism. In our university, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), we deployed On Demand Digital Certificate Issuing System for our users, and employ the PKI-based client certificates for log-on to web application, connecting to wireless network (including eduroam), using VPN service, and email sender signing. In addition, National In-stitute of Information (NII), which are providing common ICT infrastructure services for Japanese universities and institutes, started a service to issue client certificates in this year. So use of the electronic certificates will become more popular within a few years in Japan. However, there are not so enough cases deploying the electronic certificate based authentication in University infrastructure, we still has many tips and issues on operating this. In this paper, we introduce the use case of the electronic certificate in JAIST, the challenges and issues, and consider the future prospects.

Udayakumar, N., Saglani, V. J., Cupta, A. V., Subbulakshmi, T..  2018.  Malware Classification Using Machine Learning Algorithms. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1-9.

Lately, we are facing the Malware crisis due to various types of malware or malicious programs or scripts available in the huge virtual world - the Internet. But, what is malware? Malware can be a malicious software or a program or a script which can be harmful to the user's computer. These malicious programs can perform a variety of functions, including stealing, encrypting or deleting sensitive data, altering or hijacking core computing functions and monitoring users' computer activity without their permission. There are various entry points for these programs and scripts in the user environment, but only one way to remove them is to find them and kick them out of the system which isn't an easy job as these small piece of script or code can be anywhere in the user system. This paper involves the understanding of different types of malware and how we will use Machine Learning to detect these malwares.

Udd, Robert, Asplund, Mikael, Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin, Kazemtabrizi, Mehrdad, Ekstedt, Mathias.  2016.  Exploiting Bro for Intrusion Detection in a SCADA System. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security. :44–51.
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems that run our critical infrastructure are increasingly run with Internet-based protocols and devices for remote monitoring. The embedded nature of the components involved, and the legacy aspects makes adding new security mechanisms in an efficient manner far from trivial. In this paper we study an anomaly detection based approach that enables detecting zero-day malicious threats and benign malconfigurations and mishaps. The approach builds on an existing platform (Bro) that lends itself to modular addition of new protocol parsers and event handling mechanisms. As an example we have shown an application of the technique to the IEC-60870-5-104 protocol and tested the anomaly detector with mixed results. The detection accuracy and false positive rate, as well as real-time response was adequate for 3 of our 4 created attacks. We also discovered some additional work that needs to be done to an existing protocol parser to extend its reach.
Uddin Nadim, Taef, Foysal.  2021.  Towards Autonomic Entropy Based Approach for DDoS Attack Detection and Mitigation Using Software Defined Networking. 2021 International Conference on Automation, Control and Mechatronics for Industry 4.0 (ACMI). :1—5.
Software defined networking (SDN) architecture frame- work eases the work of the network administrators by separating the data plane from the control plane. This provides a programmable interface for applications development related to security and management. The centralized logical controller provides more control over the total network, which has complete network visibility. These SDN advantages expose the network to vulnerabilities and the impact of the attacks is much severe when compared to traditional networks, where the network devices have protection from the attacks and limits the occurrence of attacks. In this paper, we proposed an entropy based algorithm in SDN to detect as well as stopping distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks on the servers or clouds or hosts. Firstly, there explored various attacks that can be launched on SDN at different layers. Basically DDoS is one kind of denial of service attack in which an attacker uses multiple distributed sources for attacking a particular server. Every network in a system has an entropy and an increase in the randomness of probability causes entropy to decrease. In comparison with previous entropy based approaches this approach has higher performance in distinguishing legal and illegal traffics and blocking illegal traffic paths. Linux OS and Mininet Simulator along with POX controller are used to validate the proposed approach. By conducting pervasive simulation along with theoretical analysis this method can definitely detect and stop DDoS attacks automatically.
Uddin, Gias.  2021.  Security and Machine Learning Adoption in IoT: A Preliminary Study of IoT Developer Discussions. 2021 IEEE/ACM 3rd International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Practices for the IoT (SERP4IoT). :36–43.
Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as the connection between places and physical objects (i.e., things) over the internet/network via smart computing devices. IoT is a rapidly emerging paradigm that now encompasses almost every aspect of our modern life. As such, it is crucial to ensure IoT devices follow strict security requirements. At the same time, the prevalence of IoT devices offers developers a chance to design and develop Machine Learning (ML)-based intelligent software systems using their IoT devices. However, given the diversity of IoT devices, IoT developers may find it challenging to introduce appropriate security and ML techniques into their devices. Traditionally, we learn about the IoT ecosystem/problems by conducting surveys of IoT developers/practitioners. Another way to learn is by analyzing IoT developer discussions in popular online developer forums like Stack Overflow (SO). However, we are aware of no such studies that focused on IoT developers’ security and ML-related discussions in SO. This paper offers the results of preliminary study of IoT developer discussions in SO. First, we collect around 53K IoT posts (questions + accepted answers) from SO. Second, we tokenize each post into sentences. Third, we automatically identify sentences containing security and ML-related discussions. We find around 12% of sentences contain security discussions, while around 0.12% sentences contain ML-related discussions. There is no overlap between security and ML-related discussions, i.e., IoT developers discussing security requirements did not discuss ML requirements and vice versa. We find that IoT developers discussing security issues frequently inquired about how the shared data can be stored, shared, and transferred securely across IoT devices and users. We also find that IoT developers are interested to adopt deep neural network-based ML models into their IoT devices, but they find it challenging to accommodate those into their resource-constrained IoT devices. Our findings offer implications for IoT vendors and researchers to develop and design novel techniques for improved security and ML adoption into IoT devices.
Uddin, M. N., Lie, H., Li, H..  2017.  Hybrid Cloud Computing and Integrated Transport System. 2017 International Conference on Green Informatics (ICGI). :111–116.

In the 21st century, integrated transport, service and mobility concepts for real-life situations enabled by automation system and smarter connectivity. These services and ideas can be blessed from cloud computing, and big data management techniques for the transport system. These methods could also include automation, security, and integration with other modes. Integrated transport system can offer new means of communication among vehicles. This paper presents how hybrid could computing influence to make urban transportation smarter besides considering issues like security and privacy. However, a simple structured framework based on a hybrid cloud computing system might prevent common existing issues.

Uddin, M. Y. S., Venkatasubramanian, N..  2018.  Edge Caching for Enriched Notifications Delivery in Big Active Data. 2018 IEEE 38th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :696–705.
In this paper, we propose a set of caching strategies for big active data (BAD) systems. BAD is a data management paradigm that allows ingestion of massive amount of data from heterogeneous sources, such as sensor data, social networks, web and crowdsourced data in a large data cluster consisting of many computing and storage nodes, and enables a very large number of end users to subscribe to those data items through declarative subscriptions. A set of distributed broker nodes connect these end users to the backend data cluster, manage their subscriptions and deliver the subscription results to the end users. Unlike the most traditional publish-subscribe systems that match subscriptions against a single stream of publications to generate notifications, BAD can match subscriptions across multiple publications (by leveraging storage in the backend) and thus can enrich notifications with a rich set of diverse contents. As the matched results are delivered to the end users through the brokers, the broker node caches the results for a while so that the subscribers can retrieve them with reduced latency. Interesting research questions arise in this context so as to determine which result objects to cache or drop when the cache becomes full (eviction-based caching) or to admit objects with an explicit expiration time indicating how much time they should reside in the cache (TTL based caching). To this end, we propose a set of caching strategies for the brokers and show that the schemes achieve varying degree of efficiency in terms of notification delivery in the BAD system. We evaluate our schemes via a prototype implementation and through detailed simulation studies.
Uddin, M.P., Abu Marjan, M., Binte Sadia, N., Islam, M.R..  2014.  Developing a cryptographic algorithm based on ASCII conversions and a cyclic mathematical function. Informatics, Electronics Vision (ICIEV), 2014 International Conference on. :1-5.

Encryption and decryption of data in an efficient manner is one of the challenging aspects of modern computer science. This paper introduces a new algorithm for Cryptography to achieve a higher level of security. In this algorithm it becomes possible to hide the meaning of a message in unprintable characters. The main issue of this paper is to make the encrypted message undoubtedly unprintable using several times of ASCII conversions and a cyclic mathematical function. Dividing the original message into packets binary matrices are formed for each packet to produce the unprintable encrypted message through making the ASCII value for each character below 32. Similarly, several ASCII conversions and the inverse cyclic mathematical function are used to decrypt the unprintable encrypted message. The final encrypted message received from three times of encryption becomes an unprintable text through which the algorithm possesses higher level of security without increasing the size of data or loosing of any data.

Uddin, Md. Nasim, Hasnat, Abu Hayat Mohammed Abul, Nasrin, Shamima, Alam, Md. Shahinur, Yousuf, Mohammad Abu.  2021.  Secure File Sharing System Using Blockchain, IPFS and PKI Technologies. 2021 5th International Conference on Electrical Information and Communication Technology (EICT). :1—5.
People are dependent on Trusted Third Party (TTP) administration based Centralized systems for content sharing having a deficit of security, faith, immutability, and clearness. This work has proposed a file-sharing environment based on Blockchain by clouting the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) systems, advantages for overcoming these troubles. The smart contract is implemented to control the access privilege and the modified version of IPFS software is utilized to enforce the predefined access-control list. An application framework on a secure decentralized file sharing system is presented in combination with IPFS and PKI to secure file sharing. PKI having public and private keys is used to enable encryption and decryption of every file transaction and authentication of identities through Metamask to cryptographically recognize account ownership in the Blockchain system. A gas consumption-based result analysis is done in the private Ethereum network and it attains transparency, security managed access, and quality of data indicating better efficacy of this work.
Uddin, Mostafa, Nadeem, Tamer, Nukavarapu, Santosh.  2019.  Extreme SDN Framework for IoT and Mobile Applications Flexible Privacy at the Edge. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom. :1–11.
With the current significant penetration of mobile devices (i.e. smartphones and tablets) and the tremendous increase in the number of the corresponding mobile applications, they have become an indispensable part of our lives. Nowadays, there is a significant growth in the number of sensitive applications such as personal health applications, personal financial applications, home monitoring applications, etc. In addition, with the significant growth of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, smartphones and the corresponding applications are widely considered as the Internet gateways for these devices. Mobile devices mostly use wireless LANs (WLANs) (i.e., WiFi networks) as the prominent network interface to the Internet. However, due to the broadcast nature of WiFi links, wireless traffics are exposed to any eavesdropping adversary within the WLAN. Despite WiFi encryption, studies show that application usage information could be inferred from the encrypted wireless traffic. The leakage of this sensitive information is very serious issue that will significantly impact users' privacy and security. In addressing this privacy concern, we design and develop a lightweight programmable privacy framework, called PrivacyGuard. PrivacyGuard is inspired by the vision of pushing the Software Defined Network (SDN)-like paradigm all the way to wireless network edge, is designed to support of adopting privacy preserving policies to protect the wireless communication of the sensitive applications. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate a prototype of PrivacyGuard framework on Android devices showing the flexibility and efficiency of the framework.
Ude, Okechukwu, Swar, Bobby.  2021.  Securing Remote Access Networks Using Malware Detection Tools for Industrial Control Systems. 2021 4th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (ICPS). :166–171.
With their role as an integral part of its infrastructure, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are a vital part of every nation's industrial development drive. Despite several significant advancements - such as controlled-environment agriculture, automated train systems, and smart homes, achieved in critical infrastructure sectors through the integration of Information Systems (IS) and remote capabilities with ICS, the fact remains that these advancements have introduced vulnerabilities that were previously either nonexistent or negligible, one being Remote Access Trojans (RATs). Present RAT detection methods either focus on monitoring network traffic or studying event logs on host systems. This research's objective is the detection of RATs by comparing actual utilized system capacity to reported utilized system capacity. To achieve the research objective, open-source RAT detection methods were identified and analyzed, a GAP-analysis approach was used to identify the deficiencies of each method, after which control algorithms were developed into source code for the solution.
Udod, Kyryll, Kushnarenko, Volodymyr, Wesner, Stefan, Svjatnyj, Volodymyr.  2019.  Preservation System for Scientific Experiments in High Performance Computing: Challenges and Proposed Concept. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 2:809–813.
Continuously growing amount of research experiments using High Performance Computing (HPC) leads to the questions of research data management and in particular how to preserve a scientific experiment including all related data for long term for its future reproduction. This paper covers some challenges and possible solutions related to the preservation of scientific experiments on HPC systems and represents a concept of the preservation system for HPC computations. Storage of the experiment itself with some related data is not only enough for its future reproduction, especially in the long term. For that case preservation of the whole experiment's environment (operating system, used libraries, environment variables, input data, etc.) via containerization technology (e.g. using Docker, Singularity) is proposed. This approach allows to preserve the entire environment, but is not always possible on every HPC system because of security issues. And it also leaves a question, how to deal with commercial software that was used within the experiment. As a possible solution we propose to run a preservation process outside of the computing system on the web-server and to replace all commercial software inside the created experiment's image with open source analogues that should allow future reproduction of the experiment without any legal issues. The prototype of such a system was developed, the paper provides the scheme of the system, its main features and describes the first experimental results and further research steps.
Ueda, Yuki, Ishio, Takashi, Matsumoto, Kenichi.  2021.  Automatically Customizing Static Analysis Tools to Coding Rules Really Followed by Developers. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (SANER). :541–545.
Automatic Static Analysis Tools (ASATs) detect coding rule violations, including mistakes and bad practices that frequently occur during programming. While ASATs are widely used in both OSS and industry, the developers do not resolve more than 80% of the detected violations. As one of the reasons, most ASATs users do not customize their ASATs to their projects after installation; the ASATs with the default configuration report many rule violations that confuse developers. To reduce the ratio of such uninteresting warning messages, we propose a method to customize ASATs according to the product source code automatically. Our fundamental hypothesis is: A software project has interesting ASAT rules that are consistent over time. Our method takes source code as input and generates an ASAT configuration. In particular, the method enables optional (i.e., disabled by default) rules that detected no violations on the version because developers are likely to follow the rules in future development. Our method also disables violated rules because developers were unlikely to follow them. To evaluate the method, we applied our method to 643 versions of four JavaScript projects. The generated configurations for all four projects increased the ASAT precision. They also increased recall for two projects. The result shows that our method helps developers to focus on their attractive rule violations. Our implementation of the proposed method is available at
Uemura, Toshiaki, Kashiwabara, Yuta, Kawanuma, Daiki, Tomii, Takashi.  2016.  Accuracy Evaluation by GPS Data Correction for the EV Energy Consumption Database. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :213–218.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be applicable to smart grids because they have large-capacity batteries. It is important that smart grid users be able to estimate surplus battery energy and/or surplus capacity in advance of deploying EVs. We constructed a database, the Energy COnsumption LOG (ECOLOG) Database System, to store vehicle daily logs acquired by smartphones placed in vehicles. The electrical energy consumption is estimated from GPS coordinate data using an EV energy-consumption model. This research specifically examines commuting with a vehicle used for same route every day. We corrected GPS coordinate data by map matching, and input the data to the EV energy consumption model. We regard the remaining battery capacity data acquired by the EV CAN as correct data. Then we evaluate the accuracy of driving energy consumption logs as estimated using the corrected GPS coordinate data.
Ueta, K., Xue, X., Nakamoto, Y., Murakami, S..  2016.  A Distributed Graph Database for the Data Management of IoT Systems. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :299–304.

The Internet of Things(IoT) has become a popular technology, and various middleware has been proposed and developed for IoT systems. However, there have been few studies on the data management of IoT systems. In this paper, we consider graph database models for the data management of IoT systems because these models can specify relationships in a straightforward manner among entities such as devices, users, and information that constructs IoT systems. However, applying a graph database to the data management of IoT systems raises issues regarding distribution and security. For the former issue, we propose graph database operations integrated with REST APIs. For the latter, we extend a graph edge property by adding access protocol permissions and checking permissions using the APIs with authentication. We present the requirements for a use case scenario in addition to the features of a distributed graph database for IoT data management to solve the aforementioned issues, and implement a prototype of the graph database.

Ugwoke, F. N., Okafor, K. C., Chijindu, V. C..  2015.  Security QoS profiling against cyber terrorism in airport network systems. 2015 International Conference on Cyberspace (CYBER-Abuja). :241–251.

Attacks on airport information network services in the form of Denial of Service (DoS), Distributed DoS (DDoS), and hijacking are the most effective schemes mostly explored by cyber terrorists in the aviation industry running Mission Critical Services (MCSs). This work presents a case for Airport Information Resource Management Systems (AIRMS) which is a cloud based platform proposed for the Nigerian aviation industry. Granting that AIRMS is susceptible to DoS attacks, there is need to develop a robust counter security network model aimed at pre-empting such attacks and subsequently mitigating the vulnerability in such networks. Existing works in literature regarding cyber security DoS and other schemes have not explored embedded Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) based on OpenFlow Application Centric Infrastructure (OACI) for securing critical network assets. As such, SPI-OACI was proposed to address the challenge of Vulnerability Bandwidth Depletion DDoS Attacks (VBDDA). A characterization of the Cisco 9000 router firewall as an embedded network device with support for Virtual DDoS protection was carried out in the AIRMS threat mitigation design. Afterwards, the mitigation procedure and the initial phase of the design with Riverbed modeler software were realized. For the security Quality of Service (QoS) profiling, the system response metrics (i.e. SPI-OACI delay, throughput and utilization) in cloud based network were analyzed only for normal traffic flows. The work concludes by offering practical suggestion for securing similar enterprise management systems running on cloud infrastructure against cyber terrorists.

Ugwu, Chukwuemeka Christian, Obe, Olumide Olayinka, Popoọla, Olugbemiga Solomon, Adetunmbi, Adebayo Olusọla.  2021.  A Distributed Denial of Service Attack Detection System using Long Short Term Memory with Singular Value Decomposition. 2020 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Cyberspac (CYBER NIGERIA). :112–118.
The increase in online activity during the COVID 19 pandemic has generated a surge in network traffic capable of expanding the scope of DDoS attacks. Cyber criminals can now afford to launch massive DDoS attacks capable of degrading the performances of conventional machine learning based IDS models. Hence, there is an urgent need for an effective DDoS attack detective model with the capacity to handle large magnitude of DDoS attack traffic. This study proposes a deep learning based DDoS attack detection system using Long Short Term Memory (LSTM). The proposed model was evaluated on UNSW-NB15 and NSL-KDD intrusion datasets, whereby twenty-three (23) and twenty (20) attack features were extracted from UNSW-NB15 and NSL-KDD, respectively using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results from the proposed model show significant improvement when compared with results from some conventional machine learning techniques such as Naïve Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) with accuracies of 94.28% and 90.59% on both datasets, respectively. Furthermore, comparative analysis of LSTM with other deep learning results reported in literature justified the choice of LSTM among its deep learning peers in detecting DDoS attacks over a network.
Ugwuoke, C., Erkin, Z., Lagendijk, R. L..  2017.  Privacy-safe linkage analysis with homomorphic encryption. 2017 25th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO). :961–965.

Genetic data are important dataset utilised in genetic epidemiology to investigate biologically coded information within the human genome. Enormous research has been delved into in recent years in order to fully sequence and understand the genome. Personalised medicine, patient response to treatments and relationships between specific genes and certain characteristics such as phenotypes and diseases, are positive impacts of studying the genome, just to mention a few. The sensitivity, longevity and non-modifiable nature of genetic data make it even more interesting, consequently, the security and privacy for the storage and processing of genomic data beg for attention. A common activity carried out by geneticists is the association analysis between allele-allele, or even a genetic locus and a disease. We demonstrate the use of cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption schemes and multiparty computations, how such analysis can be carried out in a privacy friendly manner. We compute a 3 × 3 contingency table, and then, genome analyses algorithms such as linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures, all on the encrypted domain. Our computation guarantees privacy of the genome data under our security settings, and provides up to 98.4% improvement, compared to an existing solution.

Ugwuoke, Chibuike, Erkin, Zekeriya, Lagendijk, Reginald L..  2018.  Secure Fixed-Point Division for Homomorphically Encrypted Operands. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :33:1–33:10.

Due to privacy threats associated with computation of outsourced data, processing data on the encrypted domain has become a viable alternative. Secure computation of encrypted data is relevant for analysing datasets in areas (such as genome processing, private data aggregation, cloud computations) that require basic arithmetic operations. Performing division operation over-all encrypted inputs has not been achieved using homomorphic schemes in non-interactive modes. In interactive protocols, the cost of obtaining an encrypted quotient (from encrypted values) is computationally expensive. To the best of our knowledge, existing homomorphic solutions on encrypted division are often relaxed to consider public or private divisor. We acknowledge that there are other techniques such as secret sharing and garbled circuits adopted to compute secure division, but we are interested in homomorphic solutions. We propose an efficient and interactive two-party protocol that computes the fixed-point quotient of two encrypted inputs, using an efficient and secure comparison protocol as a sub-protocol. Our proposal provides a computational advantage, with a linear complexity in the digit precision of the quotient. We provide proof of security in the universally composable framework and complexity analyses. We present experimental results for two cryptosystem implementations in order to compare performance. An efficient prototype of our protocol is implemented using additive homomorphic scheme (Paillier), whereas a non-efficient fully-homomorphic scheme (BGV) version is equally presented as a proof of concept and analyses of our proposal.

Ukwandu, E., Buchanan, W. J., Russell, G..  2017.  Performance Evaluation of a Fragmented Secret Share System. 2017 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–6.
There are many risks in moving data into public storage environments, along with an increasing threat around large-scale data leakage. Secret sharing scheme has been proposed as a keyless and resilient mechanism to mitigate this, but scaling through large scale data infrastructure has remained the bane of using secret sharing scheme in big data storage and retrievals. This work applies secret sharing methods as used in cryptography to create robust and secure data storage and retrievals in conjunction with data fragmentation. It outlines two different methods of distributing data equally to storage locations as well as recovering them in such a manner that ensures consistent data availability irrespective of file size and type. Our experiments consist of two different methods - data and key shares. Using our experimental results, we were able to validate previous works on the effects of threshold on file recovery. Results obtained also revealed the varying effects of share writing to and retrieval from storage locations other than computer memory. The implication is that increase in fragment size at varying file and threshold sizes rather than add overheads to file recovery, do so on creation instead, underscoring the importance of choosing a varying fragment size as file size increases.
Ul Rehman, Shafiq, Singh, Parminder, Manickam, Selvakumar, Praptodiyono, Supriyanto.  2020.  Towards Sustainable IoT Ecosystem. 2020 2nd International Conference on Industrial Electrical and Electronics (ICIEE). :135–138.
As the world is moving towards industry 4.0, it is estimated that in the near future billions of IoT devices will be interconnected over the Internet. The open and heterogeneous nature of IoT environment makes it vulnerable to adversarial attacks. To maintain sustainability in IoT ecosystem, this paper evaluates some of the recent IoT schemes based on key security features i.e. authentication, confidentiality, trust etc. These schemes are classified according to three-layer IoT architecture. Based on our findings, some of these solutions are applicable at physical layer while others are at network, and application layers. However, none of these schemes can provide end-to-end solution for IoT environment. Therefore, our work provides a roadmap for future research directions in IoT domain to design robust security schemes for IoT environment, thus can achieve sustainability in IoT ecosystem.