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Liu, Xin, London, Kati.  2016.  T.A.I: A Tangible AI Interface to Enhance Human-Artificial Intelligence (AI) Communication Beyond the Screen. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems. :281–285.

Social and emotional intelligence of computer systems is increasingly important in human-AI (Artificial Intelligence) interactions. This paper presents a tangible AI interface, T.A.I, that enhances physical engagement in digital communication between users and a conversational AI agent. We describe a compact, pneumatically shape-changing hardware design with a rich set of physical gestures that actuate on mobile devices during real-time conversations. Our user study suggests that the physical presence provided by T.A.I increased users' empathy for, and social connection with the virtual intelligent system, leading to an improved Human-AI communication experience.