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Chen, J., Lin, X., Shi, Z., Liu, Y..  2020.  Link Prediction Adversarial Attack Via Iterative Gradient Attack. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems. 7:1081–1094.
Increasing deep neural networks are applied in solving graph evolved tasks, such as node classification and link prediction. However, the vulnerability of deep models can be revealed using carefully crafted adversarial examples generated by various adversarial attack methods. To explore this security problem, we define the link prediction adversarial attack problem and put forward a novel iterative gradient attack (IGA) strategy using the gradient information in the trained graph autoencoder (GAE) model. Not surprisingly, GAE can be fooled by an adversarial graph with a few links perturbed on the clean one. The results on comprehensive experiments of different real-world graphs indicate that most deep models and even the state-of-the-art link prediction algorithms cannot escape the adversarial attack, such as GAE. We can benefit the attack as an efficient privacy protection tool from the link prediction of unknown violations. On the other hand, the adversarial attack is a robust evaluation metric for current link prediction algorithms of their defensibility.
Chen, Y., Lai, Y., Liu, Y..  2017.  Transforming Photos to Comics Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :2010–2014.

In this paper, inspired by Gatys's recent work, we propose a novel approach that transforms photos to comics using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). While Gatys's method that uses a pre-trained VGG network generally works well for transferring artistic styles such as painting from a style image to a content image, for more minimalist styles such as comics, the method often fails to produce satisfactory results. To address this, we further introduce a dedicated comic style CNN, which is trained for classifying comic images and photos. This new network is effective in capturing various comic styles and thus helps to produce better comic stylization results. Even with a grayscale style image, Gatys's method can still produce colored output, which is not desirable for comics. We develop a modified optimization framework such that a grayscale image is guaranteed to be synthesized. To avoid converging to poor local minima, we further initialize the output image using grayscale version of the content image. Various examples show that our method synthesizes better comic images than the state-of-the-art method.

Dong, C., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Shi, P., Shao, X., Ma, C..  2018.  Abnormal Bus Data Detection of Intelligent and Connected Vehicle Based on Neural Network. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE). :171–176.
In the paper, our research of abnormal bus data analysis of intelligent and connected vehicle aims to detect the abnormal data rapidly and accurately generated by the hackers who send malicious commands to attack vehicles through three patterns, including remote non-contact, short-range non-contact and contact. The research routine is as follows: Take the bus data of 10 different brands of intelligent and connected vehicles through the real vehicle experiments as the research foundation, set up the optimized neural network, collect 1000 sets of the normal bus data of 15 kinds of driving scenarios and the other 300 groups covering the abnormal bus data generated by attacking the three systems which are most common in the intelligent and connected vehicles as the training set. In the end after repeated amendments, with 0.5 seconds per detection, the intrusion detection system has been attained in which for the controlling system the abnormal bus data is detected at the accuracy rate of 96% and the normal data is detected at the accuracy rate of 90%, for the body system the abnormal one is 87% and the normal one is 80%, for the entertainment system the abnormal one is 80% and the normal one is 65%.
Fan, M., Yu, L., Chen, S., Zhou, H., Luo, X., Li, S., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Liu, T..  2020.  An Empirical Evaluation of GDPR Compliance Violations in Android mHealth Apps. 2020 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE). :253—264.

The purpose of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to provide improved privacy protection. If an app controls personal data from users, it needs to be compliant with GDPR. However, GDPR lists general rules rather than exact step-by-step guidelines about how to develop an app that fulfills the requirements. Therefore, there may exist GDPR compliance violations in existing apps, which would pose severe privacy threats to app users. In this paper, we take mobile health applications (mHealth apps) as a peephole to examine the status quo of GDPR compliance in Android apps. We first propose an automated system, named HPDROID, to bridge the semantic gap between the general rules of GDPR and the app implementations by identifying the data practices declared in the app privacy policy and the data relevant behaviors in the app code. Then, based on HPDROID, we detect three kinds of GDPR compliance violations, including the incompleteness of privacy policy, the inconsistency of data collections, and the insecurity of data transmission. We perform an empirical evaluation of 796 mHealth apps. The results reveal that 189 (23.7%) of them do not provide complete privacy policies. Moreover, 59 apps collect sensitive data through different measures, but 46 (77.9%) of them contain at least one inconsistent collection behavior. Even worse, among the 59 apps, only 8 apps try to ensure the transmission security of collected data. However, all of them contain at least one encryption or SSL misuse. Our work exposes severe privacy issues to raise awareness of privacy protection for app users and developers.

Li, Q., Xu, B., Li, S., Liu, Y., Cui, D..  2017.  Reconstruction of measurements in state estimation strategy against cyber attacks for cyber physical systems. 2017 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7571–7576.

To improve the resilience of state estimation strategy against cyber attacks, the Compressive Sensing (CS) is applied in reconstruction of incomplete measurements for cyber physical systems. First, observability analysis is used to decide the time to run the reconstruction and the damage level from attacks. In particular, the dictionary learning is proposed to form the over-completed dictionary by K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD). Besides, due to the irregularity of incomplete measurements, sampling matrix is designed as the measurement matrix. Finally, the simulation experiments on 6-bus power system illustrate that the proposed method achieves the incomplete measurements reconstruction perfectly, which is better than the joint dictionary. When only 29% available measurements are left, the proposed method has generality for four kinds of recovery algorithms.

Li, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Guo, Z., Yin, H., Teng, H..  2020.  Synergetic Denial-of-Service Attacks and Defense in Underwater Named Data Networking. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1569–1578.
Due to the harsh environment and energy limitation, maintaining efficient communication is crucial to the lifetime of Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN). Named Data Networking (NDN), one of future network architectures, begins to be applied to UWSN. Although Underwater Named Data Networking (UNDN) performs well in data transmission, it still faces some security threats, such as the Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks caused by Interest Flooding Attacks (IFAs). In this paper, we present a new type of DoS attacks, named as Synergetic Denial-of-Service (SDoS). Attackers synergize with each other, taking turns to reply to malicious interests as late as possible. SDoS attacks will damage the Pending Interest Table, Content Store, and Forwarding Information Base in routers with high concealment. Simulation results demonstrate that the SDoS attacks quadruple the increased network traffic compared with normal IFAs and the existing IFA detection algorithm in UNDN is completely invalid to SDoS attacks. In addition, we analyze the infection problem in UNDN and propose a defense method Trident based on carefully designed adaptive threshold, burst traffic detection, and attacker identification. Experiment results illustrate that Trident can effectively detect and resist both SDoS attacks and normal IFAs. Meanwhile, Trident can robustly undertake burst traffic and congestion.
Liang, L., Liu, Y., Yao, Y., Yang, T., Hu, Y., Ling, C..  2017.  Security Challenges and Risk Evaluation Framework for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. 2017 4th International Conference on Control, Decision and Information Technologies (CoDIT). :0904–0907.

Due to flexibility, low cost and rapid deployment, wireless sensor networks (WSNs)have been drawing more and more interest from governments, researchers, application developers, and manufacturers in recent years. Nowadays, we are in the age of industry 4.0, in which the traditional industrial control systems will be connected with each other and provide intelligent manufacturing. Therefore, WSNs can play an extremely crucial role to monitor the environment and condition parameters for smart factories. Nevertheless, the introduction of the WSNs reveals the weakness, especially for industrial applications. Through the vulnerability of IWSNs, the latent attackers were likely to invade the information system. Risk evaluation is an overwhelmingly efficient method to reduce the risk of information system in order to an acceptable level. This paper aim to study the security issues about IWSNs as well as put forward a practical solution to evaluate the risk of IWSNs, which can guide us to make risk evaluation process and improve the security of IWSNs through appropriate countermeasures.

Liu, Y., Li, R., Liu, X., Wang, J., Tang, C., Kang, H..  2017.  Enhancing Anonymity of Bitcoin Based on Ring Signature Algorithm. 2017 13th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :317–321.

Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency, widely used for its perceived anonymity property, and has surged in popularity in recent years. Bitcoin publishes the complete transaction history in a public ledger, under pseudonyms of users. This is an alternative way to prevent double-spending attack instead of central authority. Therefore, if pseudonyms of users are attached to their identities in real world, the anonymity of Bitcoin will be a serious vulnerability. It is necessary to enhance anonymity of Bitcoin by a coin mixing service or other modifications in Bitcoin protocol. But in a coin mixing service, the relationship among input and output addresses is not hidden from the mixing service provider. So the mixing server still has the ability to track the transaction records of Bitcoin users. To solve this problem, We present a new coin mixing scheme to ensure that the relationship between input and output addresses of any users is invisible for the mixing server. We make use of a ring signature algorithm to ensure that the mixing server can't distinguish specific transaction from all these addresses. The ring signature ensures that a signature is signed by one of its users in the ring and doesn't leak any information about who signed it. Furthermore, the scheme is fully compatible with existing Bitcoin protocol and easily to scale for large amount of users.

Liu, Y., Briones, J., Zhou, R., Magotra, N..  2017.  Study of secure boot with a FPGA-based IoT device. 2017 IEEE 60th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :1053–1056.
Internet of Things (loT) is network connected “Things” such as vehicles, buildings, embedded systems, sensors, as well as people. IoT enables these objects to collect and exchange data of interest to complete various tasks including patient health monitoring, environmental monitoring, system condition prognostics and prediction, smart grid, smart buildings, smart cities, and do on. Due to the large scale of and the limited host processor computation power in an IoT system, effective security provisioning is shifting from software-based security implementation to hardware-based security implementation in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Moreover, FPGA can take over the work of infrastructure components to preserve and protect critical components and minimize the negative impacts on these components. In this paper, we employ Xilinx Zynq-7000 Series System-on-Chip (SoC) ZC706 prototype board to design an IoT device. To defend against threats to FPGA design, we have studied Zynq-ZC706 to (1) encrypt FPGA bitstream to protect the IoT device from bitstream decoding; (2) encrypt system boot image to enhance system security; and (3) ensure the FPGA operates correctly as intended via authentication to avoid spoofing and Trojan Horse attacks.
Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Lombardi, F., Han, J..  2018.  An Energy-Efficient Stochastic Computational Deep Belief Network. 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1175-1178.

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are effective machine learning models to solve a large class of recognition problems, including the classification of nonlinearly separable patterns. The applications of DNNs are, however, limited by the large size and high energy consumption of the networks. Recently, stochastic computation (SC) has been considered to implement DNNs to reduce the hardware cost. However, it requires a large number of random number generators (RNGs) that lower the energy efficiency of the network. To overcome these limitations, we propose the design of an energy-efficient deep belief network (DBN) based on stochastic computation. An approximate SC activation unit (A-SCAU) is designed to implement different types of activation functions in the neurons. The A-SCAU is immune to signal correlations, so the RNGs can be shared among all neurons in the same layer with no accuracy loss. The area and energy of the proposed design are 5.27% and 3.31% (or 26.55% and 29.89%) of a 32-bit floating-point (or an 8-bit fixed-point) implementation. It is shown that the proposed SC-DBN design achieves a higher classification accuracy compared to the fixed-point implementation. The accuracy is only lower by 0.12% than the floating-point design at a similar computation speed, but with a significantly lower energy consumption.

Liu, Y., Li, X., Xiao, L..  2018.  Service Oriented Resilience Strategy for Cloud Data Center. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :269-274.

As an information hinge of various trades and professions in the era of big data, cloud data center bears the responsibility to provide uninterrupted service. To cope with the impact of failure and interruption during the operation on the Quality of Service (QoS), it is important to guarantee the resilience of cloud data center. Thus, different resilience actions are conducted in its life circle, that is, resilience strategy. In order to measure the effect of resilience strategy on the system resilience, this paper propose a new approach to model and evaluate the resilience strategy for cloud data center focusing on its core part of service providing-IT architecture. A comprehensive resilience metric based on resilience loss is put forward considering the characteristic of cloud data center. Furthermore, mapping model between system resilience and resilience strategy is built up. Then, based on a hierarchical colored generalized stochastic petri net (HCGSPN) model depicting the procedure of the system processing the service requests, simulation is conducted to evaluate the resilience strategy through the metric calculation. With a case study of a company's cloud data center, the applicability and correctness of the approach is demonstrated.

Liu, Y., Yang, Y., Shi, A., Jigang, P., Haowei, L..  2019.  Intelligent monitoring of indoor surveillance video based on deep learning. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :648–653.

With the rapid development of information technology, video surveillance system has become a key part in the security and protection system of modern cities. Especially in prisons, surveillance cameras could be found almost everywhere. However, with the continuous expansion of the surveillance network, surveillance cameras not only bring convenience, but also produce a massive amount of monitoring data, which poses huge challenges to storage, analytics and retrieval. The smart monitoring system equipped with intelligent video analytics technology can monitor as well as pre-alarm abnormal events or behaviours, which is a hot research direction in the field of surveillance. This paper combines deep learning methods, using the state-of-the-art framework for instance segmentation, called Mask R-CNN, to train the fine-tuning network on our datasets, which can efficiently detect objects in a video image while simultaneously generating a high-quality segmentation mask for each instance. The experiment show that our network is simple to train and easy to generalize to other datasets, and the mask average precision is nearly up to 98.5% on our own datasets.

Liu, Y., Zhang, J., Gao, Q..  2018.  A Blockchain-Based Secure Cloud Files Sharing Scheme with Fine-Grained Access Control. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :277-283.

As cloud services greatly facilitate file sharing online, there's been a growing awareness of the security challenges brought by outsourcing data to a third party. Traditionally, the centralized management of cloud service provider brings about safety issues because the third party is only semi-trusted by clients. Besides, it causes trouble for sharing online data conveniently. In this paper, the blockchain technology is utilized for decentralized safety administration and provide more user-friendly service. Apart from that, Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption is introduced as an effective tool to realize fine-grained data access control of the stored files. Meanwhile, the security analysis proves the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud server. Finally, we evaluate the performance of computation overhead of our system.

Liu, Y., Li, L., Gao, Q., Cao, J., Wang, R., Sun, Z..  2019.  Analytical Model of Torque-Prediction for a Novel Hybrid Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines. IEEE Access. 7:109528–109538.

This paper presents an analytical method for predicting the electromagnetic performance in permanent magnet (PM) machine with the spoke-type rotor (STR) and a proposed hybrid rotor structure (HRS), respectively. The key of this method is to combine magnetic field analysis model (MFAM) with the magnetic equivalent circuit model. The influence of the irregular PM shape is considered by the segmentation calculation. To obtain the boundary condition in the MFAM, respectively, two equivalent methods on the rotor side are proposed. In the STR, the average flux density of the rotor core outer-surface is calculated to solve the Laplace's equation with considering for the rotor core outer-surface eccentric. In the HRS, based on the Thevenin's theorem, the equivalent parameters of PM remanence BreB and thickness hpme are obtained as a given condition, which can be utilized to compute the air-gap flux density by conventional classic magnetic field analysis model of surface-mounted PMs with air-gap region. Finally, the proposed analytical models are verified by the finite element analysis (FEA) with comparisons of the air-gap flux density, flux linkage, back-EMF and electromagnetic torque, respectively. Furthermore, the performance that the machine with the proposed hybrid structure rotor can improve the torque density as explained.

Liu, Y., Yuan, X., Li, M., Zhang, W., Zhao, Q., Zhong, J., Cao, Y., Li, Y., Chen, L., Li, H. et al..  2018.  High Speed Device-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation without Detection Loophole. 2018 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1–2.

We report a an experimental study of device-independent quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb × 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than 10-5.

Liu, Y., Lin, F. Y., Ahmad-Post, Z., Ebrahimi, M., Zhang, N., Hu, J. L., Xin, J., Li, W., Chen, H..  2020.  Identifying, Collecting, and Monitoring Personally Identifiable Information: From the Dark Web to the Surface Web. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :1—6.

Personally identifiable information (PII) has become a major target of cyber-attacks, causing severe losses to data breach victims. To protect data breach victims, researchers focus on collecting exposed PII to assess privacy risk and identify at-risk individuals. However, existing studies mostly rely on exposed PII collected from either the dark web or the surface web. Due to the wide exposure of PII on both the dark web and surface web, collecting from only the dark web or the surface web could result in an underestimation of privacy risk. Despite its research and practical value, jointly collecting PII from both sources is a non-trivial task. In this paper, we summarize our effort to systematically identify, collect, and monitor a total of 1,212,004,819 exposed PII records across both the dark web and surface web. Our effort resulted in 5.8 million stolen SSNs, 845,000 stolen credit/debit cards, and 1.2 billion stolen account credentials. From the surface web, we identified and collected over 1.3 million PII records of the victims whose PII is exposed on the dark web. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest academic collection of exposed PII, which, if properly anonymized, enables various privacy research inquiries, including assessing privacy risk and identifying at-risk populations.

Liu, Y., Bao, C., Xie, Y., Srivastava, A..  2017.  Introducing TFUE: The Trusted Foundry and Untrusted Employee Model in IC Supply Chain Security. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–4.
In contrast to other studies in IC supply chain security where foundries are classified as either untrusted or trusted, a more realistic threat model is that the foundries are legally and economically obliged to perform trustworthy service, and it is the individual employees that introduce security risks. We call the above as the trusted foundry and untrusted employee (TFUE) model. Based on this model, we investigate new opportunities of establishing trustworthy operations in foundries made possible by double patterning lithography (DPL). DPL is used to setup two independent mask development lines which do not need to share any information. Under this setup, we consider the attack model where the untrusted employee(s) may try to insert Trojans into the circuit. As a countermeasure, we customize DPL to decompose the layout into two sub-layouts in such a way that each sub-layout individually expose minimum information to the untrusted employee.
Liu, Z., Liu, Y., Winter, P., Mittal, P., Hu, Y. C..  2017.  TorPolice: Towards enforcing service-defined access policies for anonymous communication in the Tor network. 2017 IEEE 25th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1–10.
Tor is the most widely used anonymity network, currently serving millions of users each day. However, there is no access control in place for all these users, leaving the network vulnerable to botnet abuse and attacks. For example, criminals frequently use exit relays as stepping stones for attacks, causing service providers to serve CAPTCHAs to exit relay IP addresses or blacklisting them altogether, which leads to severe usability issues for legitimate Tor users. To address this problem, we propose TorPolice, the first privacy-preserving access control framework for Tor. TorPolice enables abuse-plagued service providers such as Yelp to enforce access rules to police and throttle malicious requests coming from Tor while still providing service to legitimate Tor users. Further, TorPolice equips Tor with global access control for relays, enhancing Tor's resilience to botnet abuse. We show that TorPolice preserves the privacy of Tor users, implement a prototype of TorPolice, and perform extensive evaluations to validate our design goals.
Lu, L., Yu, J., Chen, Y., Liu, H., Zhu, Y., Liu, Y., Li, M..  2018.  LipPass: Lip Reading-based User Authentication on Smartphones Leveraging Acoustic Signals. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1466–1474.

To prevent users' privacy from leakage, more and more mobile devices employ biometric-based authentication approaches, such as fingerprint, face recognition, voiceprint authentications, etc., to enhance the privacy protection. However, these approaches are vulnerable to replay attacks. Although state-of-art solutions utilize liveness verification to combat the attacks, existing approaches are sensitive to ambient environments, such as ambient lights and surrounding audible noises. Towards this end, we explore liveness verification of user authentication leveraging users' lip movements, which are robust to noisy environments. In this paper, we propose a lip reading-based user authentication system, LipPass, which extracts unique behavioral characteristics of users' speaking lips leveraging build-in audio devices on smartphones for user authentication. We first investigate Doppler profiles of acoustic signals caused by users' speaking lips, and find that there are unique lip movement patterns for different individuals. To characterize the lip movements, we propose a deep learning-based method to extract efficient features from Doppler profiles, and employ Support Vector Machine and Support Vector Domain Description to construct binary classifiers and spoofer detectors for user identification and spoofer detection, respectively. Afterwards, we develop a binary tree-based authentication approach to accurately identify each individual leveraging these binary classifiers and spoofer detectors with respect to registered users. Through extensive experiments involving 48 volunteers in four real environments, LipPass can achieve 90.21% accuracy in user identification and 93.1% accuracy in spoofer detection.

Shen, W., Liu, Y., Wu, Q., Tian, Y., Liu, Y., Peng, H..  2018.  Application of Dynamic Security Technology Architecture for Advanced Directional Attacks in Power System Information Security. 2018 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON). :3042–3047.

In view of the increasingly severe network security situation of power information system, this paper draws on the experience of construction of security technology system at home and abroad, with the continuous monitoring and analysis as the core, covering the closed-loop management of defense, detection, response and prediction security as the starting point, Based on the existing defense-based static security protection architecture, a dynamic security technology architecture based on detection and response is established. Compared with the traditional PDR architecture, the architecture adds security threat prediction, strengthens behavior-based detection, and further explains the concept of dynamic defense, so that it can adapt to changes in the grid IT infrastructure and business application systems. A unified security strategy can be formed to deal with more secretive and professional advanced attacks in the future. The architecture emphasizes that network security is a cyclical confrontation process. Enterprise network security thinking should change from the past “emergency response” to “continuous response”, real-time dynamic analysis of security threats, and automatically adapt to changing networks and threat environments, and Constantly optimize its own security defense mechanism, thus effectively solving the problem of the comprehensive technology transformation and upgrading of the security technology system from the traditional passive defense to the active sensing, from the simple defense to the active confrontation, and from the independent protection to the intelligence-driven. At the same time, the paper also gives the technical evolution route of the architecture, which provides a planning basis and a landing method for the continuous fulfillment of the new requirements of the security of the power information system during the 13th Five-Year Plan period.

Tang, R., Yang, Z., Li, Z., Meng, W., Wang, H., Li, Q., Sun, Y., Pei, D., Wei, T., Xu, Y. et al..  2020.  ZeroWall: Detecting Zero-Day Web Attacks through Encoder-Decoder Recurrent Neural Networks. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2479—2488.

Zero-day Web attacks are arguably the most serious threats to Web security, but are very challenging to detect because they are not seen or known previously and thus cannot be detected by widely-deployed signature-based Web Application Firewalls (WAFs). This paper proposes ZeroWall, an unsupervised approach, which works with an existing WAF in pipeline, to effectively detecting zero-day Web attacks. Using historical Web requests allowed by an existing signature-based WAF, a vast majority of which are assumed to be benign, ZeroWall trains a self-translation machine using an encoder-decoder recurrent neural network to capture the syntax and semantic patterns of benign requests. In real-time detection, a zero-day attack request (which the WAF fails to detect), not understood well by self-translation machine, cannot be translated back to its original request by the machine, thus is declared as an attack. In our evaluation using 8 real-world traces of 1.4 billion Web requests, ZeroWall successfully detects real zero-day attacks missed by existing WAFs and achieves high F1-scores over 0.98, which significantly outperforms all baseline approaches.

Wang, L., Liu, Y..  2020.  A DDoS Attack Detection Method Based on Information Entropy and Deep Learning in SDN. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1084—1088.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) decouples the control plane and the data plane and solves the difficulty of new services deployment. However, the threat of a single point of failure is also introduced at the same time. The attacker can launch DDoS attacks towards the controller through switches. In this paper, a DDoS attack detection method based on information entropy and deep learning is proposed. Firstly, suspicious traffic can be inspected through information entropy detection by the controller. Then, fine-grained packet-based detection is executed by the convolutional neural network (CNN) model to distinguish between normal traffic and attack traffic. Finally, the controller performs the defense strategy to intercept the attack. The experiments indicate that the accuracy of this method reaches 98.98%, which has the potential to detect DDoS attack traffic effectively in the SDN environment.
Wang, Y., Wen, M., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Wang, C., Yu, H., Cheung, S.-C., Xu, C., Zhu, Z..  2020.  Watchman: Monitoring Dependency Conflicts for Python Library Ecosystem. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :125–135.
The PyPI ecosystem has indexed millions of Python libraries to allow developers to automatically download and install dependencies of their projects based on the specified version constraints. Despite the convenience brought by automation, version constraints in Python projects can easily conflict, resulting in build failures. We refer to such conflicts as Dependency Conflict (DC) issues. Although DC issues are common in Python projects, developers lack tool support to gain a comprehensive knowledge for diagnosing the root causes of these issues. In this paper, we conducted an empirical study on 235 real-world DC issues. We studied the manifestation patterns and fixing strategies of these issues and found several key factors that can lead to DC issues and their regressions. Based on our findings, we designed and implemented Watchman, a technique to continuously monitor dependency conflicts for the PyPI ecosystem. In our evaluation, Watchman analyzed PyPI snapshots between 11 Jul 2019 and 16 Aug 2019, and found 117 potential DC issues. We reported these issues to the developers of the corresponding projects. So far, 63 issues have been confirmed, 38 of which have been quickly fixed by applying our suggested patches.
Wu, D., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y..  2017.  Dummy Location Selection Scheme for K-Anonymity in Location Based Services. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :441–448.

Location-Based Service (LBS) becomes increasingly important for our daily life. However, the localization information in the air is vulnerable to various attacks, which result in serious privacy concerns. To overcome this problem, we formulate a multi-objective optimization problem with considering both the query probability and the practical dummy location region. A low complexity dummy location selection scheme is proposed. We first find several candidate dummy locations with similar query probabilities. Among these selected candidates, a cloaking area based algorithm is then offered to find K - 1 dummy locations to achieve K-anonymity. The intersected area between two dummy locations is also derived to assist to determine the total cloaking area. Security analysis verifies the effectiveness of our scheme against the passive and active adversaries. Compared with other methods, simulation results show that the proposed dummy location scheme can improve the privacy level and enlarge the cloaking area simultaneously.

Wu, H., Liu, J., Liu, Y., Qiu, G., Taylor, G. A..  2017.  Power system transmission line fault diagnosis based on combined data analytics. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

As a consequence of the recent development of situational awareness technologies for smart grids, the gathering and analysis of data from multiple sources offer a significant opportunity for enhanced fault diagnosis. In order to achieve improved accuracy for both fault detection and classification, a novel combined data analytics technique is presented and demonstrated in this paper. The proposed technique is based on a segmented approach to Bayesian modelling that provides probabilistic graphical representations of both electrical power and data communication networks. In this manner, the reliability of both the data communication and electrical power networks are considered in order to improve overall power system transmission line fault diagnosis.