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Marwecki, Sebastian, Brehm, Maximilian, Wagner, Lukas, Cheng, Lung-Pan, Mueller, Florian 'Floyd', Baudisch, Patrick.  2018.  VirtualSpace - Overloading Physical Space with Multiple Virtual Reality Users. Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. :241:1-241:10.

Although virtual reality hardware is now widely available, the uptake of real walking is hindered by the fact that it requires often impractically large amounts of physical space. To address this, we present VirtualSpace, a novel system that allows overloading multiple users immersed in different VR experiences into the same physical space. VirtualSpace accomplishes this by containing each user in a subset of the physical space at all times, which we call tiles; app-invoked maneuvers then shuffle tiles and users across the entire physical space. This allows apps to move their users to where their narrative requires them to be while hiding from users that they are confined to a tile. We show how this enables VirtualSpace to pack four users into 16m2. In our study we found that VirtualSpace allowed participants to use more space and to feel less confined than in a control condition with static, pre-allocated space.

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Cheng, Lung-Pan, Marwecki, Sebastian, Baudisch, Patrick.  2017.  Mutual Human Actuation. Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. :797–805.
Human actuation is the idea of using people to provide large-scale force feedback to users. The Haptic Turk system, for example, used four human actuators to lift and push a virtual reality user; TurkDeck used ten human actuators to place and animate props for a single user. While the experience of human actuators was decent, it was still inferior to the experience these people could have had, had they participated as a user. In this paper, we address this issue by making everyone a user. We introduce mutual human actuation, a version of human actuation that works without dedicated human actuators. The key idea is to run pairs of users at the same time and have them provide human actuation to each other. Our system, Mutual Turk, achieves this by (1) offering shared props through which users can exchange forces while obscuring the fact that there is a human on the other side, and (2) synchronizing the two users' timelines such that their way of manipulating the shared props is consistent across both virtual worlds. We demonstrate mutual human actuation with an example experience in which users pilot kites though storms, tug fish out of ponds, are pummeled by hail, battle monsters, hop across chasms, push loaded carts, and ride in moving vehicles.