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2017
Yasin, Muhammad, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Nabeel, Mohammed Thari, Ashraf, Mohammed, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan(JV), Sinanoglu, Ozgur.  2017.  Provably-Secure Logic Locking: From Theory To Practice. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1601–1618.

Logic locking has been conceived as a promising proactive defense strategy against intellectual property (IP) piracy, counterfeiting, hardware Trojans, reverse engineering, and overbuilding attacks. Yet, various attacks that use a working chip as an oracle have been launched on logic locking to successfully retrieve its secret key, undermining the defense of all existing locking techniques. In this paper, we propose stripped-functionality logic locking (SFLL), which strips some of the functionality of the design and hides it in the form of a secret key(s), thereby rendering on-chip implementation functionally different from the original one. When loaded onto an on-chip memory, the secret keys restore the original functionality of the design. Through security-aware synthesis that creates a controllable mismatch between the reverse-engineered netlist and original design, SFLL provides a quantifiable and provable resilience trade-off between all known and anticipated attacks. We demonstrate the application of SFLL to large designs (textgreater100K gates) using a computer-aided design (CAD) framework that ensures attaining the desired security level at minimal implementation cost, 8%, 5%, and 0.5% for area, power, and delay, respectively. In addition to theoretical proofs and simulation confirmation of SFLL's security, we also report results from the silicon implementation of SFLL on an ARM Cortex-M0 microprocessor in 65nm technology.

Yasin, Muhammad, Sengupta, Abhrajit, Schafer, Benjamin Carrion, Makris, Yiorgos, Sinanoglu, Ozgur, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan(JV).  2017.  What to Lock?: Functional and Parametric Locking Proceedings of the on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI 2017. :351–356.

Logic locking is an intellectual property (IP) protection technique that prevents IP piracy, reverse engineering and overbuilding attacks by the untrusted foundry or end-users. Existing logic locking techniques are all based on locking the functionality; the design/chip is nonfunctional unless the secret key has been loaded. Existing techniques are vulnerable to various attacks, such as sensitization, key-pruning, and signal skew analysis enabled removal attacks. In this paper, we propose a tenacious and traceless logic locking technique, TTlock, that locks functionality and provably withstands all known attacks, such as SAT-based, sensitization, removal, etc. TTLock protects a secret input pattern; the output of a logic cone is flipped for that pattern, where this flip is restored only when the correct key is applied. Experimental results confirm our theoretical expectations that the computational complexity of attacks launched on TTLock grows exponentially with increasing key-size, while the area, power, and delay overhead increases only linearly. In this paper, we also coin ``parametric locking," where the design/chip behaves as per its specifications (performance, power, reliability, etc.) only with the secret key in place, and an incorrect key downgrades its parametric characteristics. We discuss objectives and challenges in parametric locking.

2019
Salmani, Hassan, Hoque, Tamzidul, Bhunia, Swarup, Yasin, Muhammad, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan JV, Karimi, Naghmeh.  2019.  Special Session: Countering IP Security Threats in Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE 37th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1–9.

The continuing decrease in feature size of integrated circuits, and the increase of the complexity and cost of design and fabrication has led to outsourcing the design and fabrication of integrated circuits to third parties across the globe, and in turn has introduced several security vulnerabilities. The adversaries in the supply chain can pirate integrated circuits, overproduce these circuits, perform reverse engineering, and/or insert hardware Trojans in these circuits. Developing countermeasures against such security threats is highly crucial. Accordingly, this paper first develops a learning-based trust verification framework to detect hardware Trojans. To tackle Trojan insertion, IP piracy and overproduction, logic locking schemes and in particular stripped functionality logic locking is discussed and its resiliency against the state-of-the-art attacks is investigated.