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Brust, M. R., Zurad, M., Hentges, L., Gomes, L., Danoy, G., Bouvry, P..  2017.  Target Tracking Optimization of UAV Swarms Based on Dual-Pheromone Clustering. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF). :1–8.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are autonomous aircraft that, when equipped with wireless communication interfaces, can share data among themselves when in communication range. Compared to single UAVs, using multiple UAVs as a collaborative swarm is considerably more effective for target tracking, reconnaissance, and surveillance missions because of their capacity to tackle complex problems synergistically. Success rates in target detection and tracking depend on map coverage performance, which in turn relies on network connectivity between UAVs to propagate surveillance results to avoid revisiting already observed areas. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing three objectives for a swarm of UAVs: (a) target detection and tracking, (b) map coverage, and (c) network connectivity. Our approach, Dual-Pheromone Clustering Hybrid Approach (DPCHA), incorporates a multi-hop clustering and a dual-pheromone ant-colony model to optimize these three objectives. Clustering keeps stable overlay networks, while attractive and repulsive pheromones mark areas of detected targets and visited areas. Additionally, DPCHA introduces a disappearing target model for dealing with temporarily invisible targets. Extensive simulations show that DPCHA produces significant improvements in the assessment of coverage fairness, cluster stability, and connection volatility. We compared our approach with a pure dual- pheromone approach and a no-base model, which removes the base station from the model. Results show an approximately 50% improvement in map coverage compared to the pure dual-pheromone approach.