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Ashok, A., Sridhar, S., Rice, M., Smith, J..  2017.  Substation Monitoring to Enhance Situational Awareness \#x2014; Challenges and Opportunities. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

Situational awareness during sophisticated cyber attacks on the power grid is critical for the system operator to perform suitable attack response and recovery functions to ensure grid reliability. The overall theme of this paper is to identify existing practical issues and challenges that utilities face while monitoring substations, and to suggest potential approaches to enhance the situational awareness for the grid operators. In this paper, we provide a broad discussion about the various gaps that exist in the utility industry today in monitoring substations, and how those gaps could be addressed by identifying the various data sources and monitoring tools to improve situational awareness. The paper also briefly describes the advantages of contextualizing and correlating substation monitoring alerts using expert systems at the control center to obtain a holistic systems-level view of potentially malicious cyber activity at the substations before they cause impacts to grid operation.