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Wang, Pei, Guðmundsson, Bjarki Ágúst, Kotowicz, Krzysztof.  2021.  Adopting Trusted Types in ProductionWeb Frameworks to Prevent DOM-Based Cross-Site Scripting: A Case Study. 2021 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :60–73.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a common security vulnerability found in web applications. DOM-based XSS, one of the variants, is becoming particularly more prevalent with the boom of single-page applications where most of the UI changes are achieved by modifying the DOM through in-browser scripting. It is very easy for developers to introduce XSS vulnerabilities into web applications since there are many ways for user-controlled, unsanitized input to flow into a Web API and get interpreted as HTML markup and JavaScript code. An emerging Web API proposal called Trusted Types aims to prevent DOM XSS by making Web APIs secure by default. Different from other XSS mitigations that mostly focus on post-development protection, Trusted Types direct developers to write XSS-free code in the first place. A common concern when adopting a new security mechanism is how much effort is required to refactor existing code bases. In this paper, we report a case study on adopting Trusted Types in a well-established web framework. Our experience can help the web community better understand the benefits of making web applications compatible with Trusted Types, while also getting to know the related challenges and resolutions. We focused our work on Angular, which is one of the most popular web development frameworks available on the market.
Lekies, Sebastian, Kotowicz, Krzysztof, Groß, Samuel, Vela Nava, Eduardo A., Johns, Martin.  2017.  Code-Reuse Attacks for the Web: Breaking Cross-Site Scripting Mitigations via Script Gadgets. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1709–1723.
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is an unremitting problem for the Web. Since its initial public documentation in 2000 until now, XSS has been continuously on top of the vulnerability statistics. Even though there has been a considerable amount of research and developer education to address XSS on the source code level, the overall number of discovered XSS problems remains high. Because of this, various approaches to mitigate XSS have been proposed as a second line of defense, with HTML sanitizers, Web Application Firewalls, browser-based XSS filters, and the Content Security Policy being some prominent examples. Most of these mechanisms focus on script tags and event handlers, either by removing them from user-provided content or by preventing their script code from executing. In this paper, we demonstrate that this approach is no longer sufficient for modern applications: We describe a novel Web attack that can circumvent all of theses currently existing XSS mitigation techniques. In this attack, the attacker abuses so called script gadgets (legitimate JavaScript fragments within an application's legitimate code base) to execute JavaScript. In most cases, these gadgets utilize DOM selectors to interact with elements in the Web document. Through an initial injection point, the attacker can inject benign-looking HTML elements which are ignored by these mitigation techniques but match the selector of the gadget. This way, the attacker can hijack the input of a gadget and cause processing of his input, which in turn leads to code execution of attacker-controlled values. We demonstrate that these gadgets are omnipresent in almost all modern JavaScript frameworks and present an empirical study showing the prevalence of script gadgets in productive code. As a result, we assume most mitigation techniques in web applications written today can be bypassed.