Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Author is Pras, A.  [Clear All Filters]
Ceron, J. M., Scholten, C., Pras, A., Santanna, J..  2020.  MikroTik Devices Landscape, Realistic Honeypots, and Automated Attack Classification. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—9.

In 2018, several malware campaigns targeted and succeed to infect millions of low-cost routers (malwares e.g., VPN-Filter, Navidade, and SonarDNS). These routers were used, then, for all sort of cybercrimes: from DDoS attacks to ransomware. MikroTik routers are a peculiar example of low-cost routers. These routers are used to provide both last mile access to home users and are used in core network infrastructure. Half of the core routers used in one of the biggest Internet exchanges in the world are MikroTik devices. The problem is that vulnerable firmwares (RouterOS) used in homeusers houses are also used in core networks. In this paper, we are the first to quantify the problem that infecting MikroTik devices would pose to the Internet. Based on more than 4 TB of data, we reveal more than 4 million MikroTik devices in the world. Then, we propose an easy-to-deploy MikroTik honeypot and collect more than 17 millions packets, in 45 days, from sensors deployed in Australia, Brazil, China, India, Netherlands, and the United States. Finally, we use the collected data from our honeypots to automatically classify and assess attacks tailored to MikroTik devices. All our source-codes and analysis are publicly available. We believe that our honeypots and our findings in this paper foster security improvements in MikroTik devices worldwide.

Hendriks, L., Velan, P., Schmidt, R. d O., Boer, P. T. de, Pras, A..  2017.  Threats and surprises behind IPv6 extension headers. 2017 Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference (TMA). :1–9.

The concept of Extension Headers, newly introduced with IPv6, is elusive and enables new types of threats in the Internet. Simply dropping all traffic containing any Extension Header - a current practice by operators-seemingly is an effective solution, but at the cost of possibly dropping legitimate traffic as well. To determine whether threats indeed occur, and evaluate the actual nature of the traffic, measurement solutions need to be adapted. By implementing these specific parsing capabilities in flow exporters and performing measurements on two different production networks, we show it is feasible to quantify the metrics directly related to these threats, and thus allow for monitoring and detection. Analysing the traffic that is hidden behind Extension Headers, we find mostly benign traffic that directly affects end-user QoE: simply dropping all traffic containing Extension Headers is thus a bad practice with more consequences than operators might be aware of.