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Li, Y., Yang, X., Sun, P., Qi, H., Lyu, S..  2020.  Celeb-DF: A Large-Scale Challenging Dataset for DeepFake Forensics. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :3204—3213.
AI-synthesized face-swapping videos, commonly known as DeepFakes, is an emerging problem threatening the trustworthiness of online information. The need to develop and evaluate DeepFake detection algorithms calls for datasets of DeepFake videos. However, current DeepFake datasets suffer from low visual quality and do not resemble DeepFake videos circulated on the Internet. We present a new large-scale challenging DeepFake video dataset, Celeb-DF, which contains 5,639 high-quality DeepFake videos of celebrities generated using improved synthesis process. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of DeepFake detection methods and datasets to demonstrate the escalated level of challenges posed by Celeb-DF.
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Salles-Loustau, G., Garcia, L., Sun, P., Dehnavi, M., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Power Grid Safety Control via Fine-Grained Multi-Persona Programmable Logic Controllers. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm). :283–288.

Trustworthy and safe operation of the power grid critical infrastructures relies on secure execution of low-level substation controller devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Currently, there are very few security protection solutions deployed on these devices to ensure provenance control: to execute controller code on the device that is developed by trusted parties and complies with safety/security policies that are defined by the code developer as well as the power grid operators. Resource-limited PLC controllers have been becoming increasingly popular among not only legitimate system operators, but also malicious adversaries such as the most recent Stuxnet and BlackEnergy malware that caused various damages such as unauthorized infrastructural safety and integrity violations. We present PLCtrust, a domain-specific solution that deploys virtual micro security-perimeters, so-called capsules, and the corresponding device-level runtime power system-safety policy enforcement dynamically. PLCtrust makes use of data taint analysis to monitor and control data flow among the capsules based on data owner-defined policies. PLCtrust provides the operators with a transparent and lightweight solution to address various safety-critical data protection requirements. PLCtrust also provides the legitimate third-party controller code developers with a taint-aware programming interface to develop applications in compliance with the dynamic power system safety/security policies. Our experimental results on real-world settings show that PLCtrust is transparent to the end-users while ensuring the power grid safety maintenance with minimal performance overhead.

Shelar, D., Sun, P., Amin, S., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Compromising Security of Economic Dispatch in Power System Operations. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :531–542.
Power grid operations rely on the trustworthy operation of critical control center functionalities, including the so-called Economic Dispatch (ED) problem. The ED problem is a large-scale optimization problem that is periodically solved by the system operator to ensure the balance of supply and load while maintaining reliability constraints. In this paper, we propose a semantics-based attack generation and implementation approach to study the security of the ED problem.1 Firstly, we generate optimal attack vectors to transmission line ratings to induce maximum congestion in the critical lines, resulting in the violation of capacity limits. We formulate a bilevel optimization problem in which the attacker chooses manipulations of line capacity ratings to maximinimize the percentage line capacity violations under linear power flows. We reformulate the bilevel problem as a mixed integer linear program that can be solved efficiently. Secondly, we describe how the optimal attack vectors can be implemented in commercial energy management systems (EMSs). The attack explores the dynamic memory space of the EMS, and replaces the true line capacity ratings stored in data regions with the optimal attack vectors. In contrast to the well-known false data injection attacks to control systems that require compromising distributed sensors, our approach directly implements attacks to the control center server. Our experimental results on benchmark power systems and five widely utilized EMSs show the practical feasibility of our attack generation and implementation approach.
Shelar, D., Sun, P., Amin, S., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Compromising Security of Economic Dispatch in Power System Operations. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :531–542.

Power grid operations rely on the trustworthy operation of critical control center functionalities, including the so-called Economic Dispatch (ED) problem. The ED problem is a large-scale optimization problem that is periodically solved by the system operator to ensure the balance of supply and load while maintaining reliability constraints. In this paper, we propose a semantics-based attack generation and implementation approach to study the security of the ED problem.1 Firstly, we generate optimal attack vectors to transmission line ratings to induce maximum congestion in the critical lines, resulting in the violation of capacity limits. We formulate a bilevel optimization problem in which the attacker chooses manipulations of line capacity ratings to maximinimize the percentage line capacity violations under linear power flows. We reformulate the bilevel problem as a mixed integer linear program that can be solved efficiently. Secondly, we describe how the optimal attack vectors can be implemented in commercial energy management systems (EMSs). The attack explores the dynamic memory space of the EMS, and replaces the true line capacity ratings stored in data regions with the optimal attack vectors. In contrast to the well-known false data injection attacks to control systems that require compromising distributed sensors, our approach directly implements attacks to the control center server. Our experimental results on benchmark power systems and five widely utilized EMSs show the practical feasibility of our attack generation and implementation approach.

Shelar, D., Sun, P., Amin, S., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Compromising Security of Economic Dispatch in Power System Operations. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :531–542.

Power grid operations rely on the trustworthy operation of critical control center functionalities, including the so-called Economic Dispatch (ED) problem. The ED problem is a large-scale optimization problem that is periodically solved by the system operator to ensure the balance of supply and load while maintaining reliability constraints. In this paper, we propose a semantics-based attack generation and implementation approach to study the security of the ED problem.1 Firstly, we generate optimal attack vectors to transmission line ratings to induce maximum congestion in the critical lines, resulting in the violation of capacity limits. We formulate a bilevel optimization problem in which the attacker chooses manipulations of line capacity ratings to maximinimize the percentage line capacity violations under linear power flows. We reformulate the bilevel problem as a mixed integer linear program that can be solved efficiently. Secondly, we describe how the optimal attack vectors can be implemented in commercial energy management systems (EMSs). The attack explores the dynamic memory space of the EMS, and replaces the true line capacity ratings stored in data regions with the optimal attack vectors. In contrast to the well-known false data injection attacks to control systems that require compromising distributed sensors, our approach directly implements attacks to the control center server. Our experimental results on benchmark power systems and five widely utilized EMSs show the practical feasibility of our attack generation and implementation approach.

Sun, P., Yin, S., Man, W., Tao, T..  2018.  Research of Personalized Recommendation Algorithm Based on Trust and User's Interest. 2018 International Conference on Robots Intelligent System (ICRIS). :153—156.

Most traditional recommendation algorithms only consider the binary relationship between users and projects, these can basically be converted into score prediction problems. But most of these algorithms ignore the users's interests, potential work factors or the other social factors of the recommending products. In this paper, based on the existing trustworthyness model and similarity measure, we puts forward the concept of trust similarity and design a joint interest-content recommendation framework to suggest users which videos to watch in the online video site. In this framework, we first analyze the user's viewing history records, tags and establish the user's interest characteristic vector. Then, based on the updated vector, users should be clustered by sparse subspace clust algorithm, which can improve the efficiency of the algorithm. We certainly improve the calculation of similarity to help users find better neighbors. Finally we conduct experiments using real traces from Tencent Weibo and Youku to verify our method and evaluate its performance. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and show that our approach can substantially improve the recommendation accuracy.

Sun, P., Garcia, L., Salles-Loustau, G., Zonouz, S..  2020.  Hybrid Firmware Analysis for Known Mobile and IoT Security Vulnerabilities. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :373—384.

Mobile and IoT operating systems–and their ensuing software updates–are usually distributed as binary files. Given that these binary files are commonly closed source, users or businesses who want to assess the security of the software need to rely on reverse engineering. Further, verifying the correct application of the latest software patches in a given binary is an open problem. The regular application of software patches is a central pillar for improving mobile and IoT device security. This requires developers, integrators, and vendors to propagate patches to all affected devices in a timely and coordinated fashion. In practice, vendors follow different and sometimes improper security update agendas for both mobile and IoT products. Moreover, previous studies revealed the existence of a hidden patch gap: several vendors falsely reported that they patched vulnerabilities. Therefore, techniques to verify whether vulnerabilities have been patched or not in a given binary are essential. Deep learning approaches have shown to be promising for static binary analyses with respect to inferring binary similarity as well as vulnerability detection. However, these approaches fail to capture the dynamic behavior of these systems, and, as a result, they may inundate the analysis with false positives when performing vulnerability discovery in the wild. In particular, they cannot capture the fine-grained characteristics necessary to distinguish whether a vulnerability has been patched or not. In this paper, we present PATCHECKO, a vulnerability and patch presence detection framework for executable binaries. PATCHECKO relies on a hybrid, cross-platform binary code similarity analysis that combines deep learning-based static binary analysis with dynamic binary analysis. PATCHECKO does not require access to the source code of the target binary nor that of vulnerable functions. We evaluate PATCHECKO on the most recent Google Pixel 2 smartphone and the Android Things IoT firmware images, within which 25 known CVE vulnerabilities have been previously reported and patched. Our deep learning model shows a vulnerability detection accuracy of over 93%. We further prune the candidates found by the deep learning stage–which includes false positives–via dynamic binary analysis. Consequently, PATCHECKO successfully identifies the correct matches among the candidate functions in the top 3 ranked outcomes 100% of the time. Furthermore, PATCHECKO's differential engine distinguishes between functions that are still vulnerable and those that are patched with an accuracy of 96%.