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Gonzalez, D., Alhenaki, F., Mirakhorli, M..  2019.  Architectural Security Weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) an Empirical Study Based on Disclosed Software Vulnerabilities. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA). :31–40.

Industrial control systems (ICS) are systems used in critical infrastructures for supervisory control, data acquisition, and industrial automation. ICS systems have complex, component-based architectures with many different hardware, software, and human factors interacting in real time. Despite the importance of security concerns in industrial control systems, there has not been a comprehensive study that examined common security architectural weaknesses in this domain. Therefore, this paper presents the first in-depth analysis of 988 vulnerability advisory reports for Industrial Control Systems developed by 277 vendors. We performed a detailed analysis of the vulnerability reports to measure which components of ICS have been affected the most by known vulnerabilities, which security tactics were affected most often in ICS and what are the common architectural security weaknesses in these systems. Our key findings were: (1) Human-Machine Interfaces, SCADA configurations, and PLCs were the most affected components, (2) 62.86% of vulnerability disclosures in ICS had an architectural root cause, (3) the most common architectural weaknesses were “Improper Input Validation”, followed by “Im-proper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation” and “Improper Authentication”, and (4) most tactic-related vulnerabilities were related to the tactics “Validate Inputs”, “Authenticate Actors” and “Authorize Actors”.

D
Gonzalez, D., Hayajneh, T..  2017.  Detection and Prevention of Crypto-Ransomware. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :472–478.

Crypto-ransomware is a challenging threat that ciphers a user's files while hiding the decryption key until a ransom is paid by the victim. This type of malware is a lucrative business for cybercriminals, generating millions of dollars annually. The spread of ransomware is increasing as traditional detection-based protection, such as antivirus and anti-malware, has proven ineffective at preventing attacks. Additionally, this form of malware is incorporating advanced encryption algorithms and expanding the number of file types it targets. Cybercriminals have found a lucrative market and no one is safe from being the next victim. Encrypting ransomware targets business small and large as well as the regular home user. This paper discusses ransomware methods of infection, technology behind it and what can be done to help prevent becoming the next victim. The paper investigates the most common types of crypto-ransomware, various payload methods of infection, typical behavior of crypto ransomware, its tactics, how an attack is ordinarily carried out, what files are most commonly targeted on a victim's computer, and recommendations for prevention and safeguards are listed as well.