Visible to the public Biblio

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Cao, Z., Deng, H., Lu, L., Duan, X..  2014.  An information-theoretic security metric for future wireless communication systems. 2014 XXXIth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS). :1–4.
Quantitative analysis of security properties in wireless communication systems is an important issue; it helps us get a comprehensive view of security and can be used to compare the security performance of different systems. This paper analyzes the security of future wireless communication system from an information-theoretic point of view and proposes an overall security metric. We demonstrate that the proposed metric is more reasonable than some existing metrics and it is highly sensitive to some basic parameters and helpful to do fine-grained tuning of security performance.
Bai, Y., Guo, Y., Wei, J., Lu, L., Wang, R., Wang, Y..  2020.  Fake Generated Painting Detection Via Frequency Analysis. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :1256–1260.
With the development of deep neural networks, digital fake paintings can be generated by various style transfer algorithms. To detect the fake generated paintings, we analyze the fake generated and real paintings in Fourier frequency domain and observe statistical differences and artifacts. Based on our observations, we propose Fake Generated Painting Detection via Frequency Analysis (FGPD-FA) by extracting three types of features in frequency domain. Besides, we also propose a digital fake painting detection database for assessing the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate the excellence of the proposed method in different testing conditions.
Koo, H., Chen, Y., Lu, L., Kemerlis, V. P., Polychronakis, M..  2018.  Compiler-Assisted Code Randomization. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :461–477.

Despite decades of research on software diversification, only address space layout randomization has seen widespread adoption. Code randomization, an effective defense against return-oriented programming exploits, has remained an academic exercise mainly due to i) the lack of a transparent and streamlined deployment model that does not disrupt existing software distribution norms, and ii) the inherent incompatibility of program variants with error reporting, whitelisting, patching, and other operations that rely on code uniformity. In this work we present compiler-assisted code randomization (CCR), a hybrid approach that relies on compiler-rewriter cooperation to enable fast and robust fine-grained code randomization on end-user systems, while maintaining compatibility with existing software distribution models. The main concept behind CCR is to augment binaries with a minimal set of transformation-assisting metadata, which i) facilitate rapid fine-grained code transformation at installation or load time, and ii) form the basis for reversing any applied code transformation when needed, to maintain compatibility with existing mechanisms that rely on referencing the original code. We have implemented a prototype of this approach by extending the LLVM compiler toolchain, and developing a simple binary rewriter that leverages the embedded metadata to generate randomized variants using basic block reordering. The results of our experimental evaluation demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of CCR, as on average it incurs a modest file size increase of 11.46% and a negligible runtime overhead of 0.28%, while it is compatible with link-time optimization and control flow integrity.

Feng, Y., Akiyama, H., Lu, L., Sakurai, K..  2018.  Feature Selection for Machine Learning-Based Early Detection of Distributed Cyber Attacks. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :173–180.

It is well known that distributed cyber attacks simultaneously launched from many hosts have caused the most serious problems in recent years including problems of privacy leakage and denial of services. Thus, how to detect those attacks at early stage has become an important and urgent topic in the cyber security community. For this purpose, recognizing C&C (Command & Control) communication between compromised bots and the C&C server becomes a crucially important issue, because C&C communication is in the preparation phase of distributed attacks. Although attack detection based on signature has been practically applied since long ago, it is well-known that it cannot efficiently deal with new kinds of attacks. In recent years, ML(Machine learning)-based detection methods have been studied widely. In those methods, feature selection is obviously very important to the detection performance. We once utilized up to 55 features to pick out C&C traffic in order to accomplish early detection of DDoS attacks. In this work, we try to answer the question that "Are all of those features really necessary?" We mainly investigate how the detection performance moves as the features are removed from those having lowest importance and we try to make it clear that what features should be payed attention for early detection of distributed attacks. We use honeypot data collected during the period from 2008 to 2013. SVM(Support Vector Machine) and PCA(Principal Component Analysis) are utilized for feature selection and SVM and RF(Random Forest) are for building the classifier. We find that the detection performance is generally getting better if more features are utilized. However, after the number of features has reached around 40, the detection performance will not change much even more features are used. It is also verified that, in some specific cases, more features do not always means a better detection performance. We also discuss 10 important features which have the biggest influence on classification.

Lu, L., Yu, J., Chen, Y., Liu, H., Zhu, Y., Liu, Y., Li, M..  2018.  LipPass: Lip Reading-based User Authentication on Smartphones Leveraging Acoustic Signals. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1466–1474.

To prevent users' privacy from leakage, more and more mobile devices employ biometric-based authentication approaches, such as fingerprint, face recognition, voiceprint authentications, etc., to enhance the privacy protection. However, these approaches are vulnerable to replay attacks. Although state-of-art solutions utilize liveness verification to combat the attacks, existing approaches are sensitive to ambient environments, such as ambient lights and surrounding audible noises. Towards this end, we explore liveness verification of user authentication leveraging users' lip movements, which are robust to noisy environments. In this paper, we propose a lip reading-based user authentication system, LipPass, which extracts unique behavioral characteristics of users' speaking lips leveraging build-in audio devices on smartphones for user authentication. We first investigate Doppler profiles of acoustic signals caused by users' speaking lips, and find that there are unique lip movement patterns for different individuals. To characterize the lip movements, we propose a deep learning-based method to extract efficient features from Doppler profiles, and employ Support Vector Machine and Support Vector Domain Description to construct binary classifiers and spoofer detectors for user identification and spoofer detection, respectively. Afterwards, we develop a binary tree-based authentication approach to accurately identify each individual leveraging these binary classifiers and spoofer detectors with respect to registered users. Through extensive experiments involving 48 volunteers in four real environments, LipPass can achieve 90.21% accuracy in user identification and 93.1% accuracy in spoofer detection.

Ran, L., Lu, L., Lin, H., Han, M., Zhao, D., Xiang, J., Yu, H., Ma, X..  2017.  An Experimental Study of Four Methods for Homology Analysis of Firmware Vulnerability. 2017 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Their Applications (DSA). :42–50.

In the production process of embedded device, due to the frequent reuse of third-party libraries or development kits, there are large number of same vulnerabilities that appear in more than one firmware. Homology analysis is often used in detecting this kind of vulnerabilities caused by code reuse or third-party reuse and in the homology analysis, the widely used methods are mainly Binary difference analysis, Normalized compression distance, String feature matching and Fuzz hash. But when we use these methods for homology analysis, we found that the detection result is not ideal and there is a high false positive rate. Focusing on this problem, we analyzed the application scenarios of these four methods and their limitations by combining different methods and different types of files and the experiments show that the combination of methods and files have a better performance in homology analysis.