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Zhang, Yiming, Fan, Yujie, Song, Wei, Hou, Shifu, Ye, Yanfang, Li, Xin, Zhao, Liang, Shi, Chuan, Wang, Jiabin, Xiong, Qi.  2019.  Your Style Your Identity: Leveraging Writing and Photography Styles for Drug Trafficker Identification in Darknet Markets over Attributed Heterogeneous Information Network. The World Wide Web Conference. :3448–3454.
Due to its anonymity, there has been a dramatic growth of underground drug markets hosted in the darknet (e.g., Dream Market and Valhalla). To combat drug trafficking (a.k.a. illicit drug trading) in the cyberspace, there is an urgent need for automatic analysis of participants in darknet markets. However, one of the key challenges is that drug traffickers (i.e., vendors) may maintain multiple accounts across different markets or within the same market. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose and develop an intelligent system named uStyle-uID leveraging both writing and photography styles for drug trafficker identification at the first attempt. At the core of uStyle-uID is an attributed heterogeneous information network (AHIN) which elegantly integrates both writing and photography styles along with the text and photo contents, as well as other supporting attributes (i.e., trafficker and drug information) and various kinds of relations. Built on the constructed AHIN, to efficiently measure the relatedness over nodes (i.e., traffickers) in the constructed AHIN, we propose a new network embedding model Vendor2Vec to learn the low-dimensional representations for the nodes in AHIN, which leverages complementary attribute information attached in the nodes to guide the meta-path based random walk for path instances sampling. After that, we devise a learning model named vIdentifier to classify if a given pair of traffickers are the same individual. Comprehensive experiments on the data collections from four different darknet markets are conducted to validate the effectiveness of uStyle-uID which integrates our proposed method in drug trafficker identification by comparisons with alternative approaches.
Chen, Lingwei, Hou, Shifu, Ye, Yanfang.  2017.  SecureDroid: Enhancing Security of Machine Learning-Based Detection Against Adversarial Android Malware Attacks. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :362–372.

With smart phones being indispensable in people's everyday life, Android malware has posed serious threats to their security, making its detection of utmost concern. To protect legitimate users from the evolving Android malware attacks, machine learning-based systems have been successfully deployed and offer unparalleled flexibility in automatic Android malware detection. In these systems, based on different feature representations, various kinds of classifiers are constructed to detect Android malware. Unfortunately, as classifiers become more widely deployed, the incentive for defeating them increases. In this paper, we explore the security of machine learning in Android malware detection on the basis of a learning-based classifier with the input of a set of features extracted from the Android applications (apps). We consider different importances of the features associated with their contributions to the classification problem as well as their manipulation costs, and present a novel feature selection method (named SecCLS) to make the classifier harder to be evaded. To improve the system security while not compromising the detection accuracy, we further propose an ensemble learning approach (named SecENS) by aggregating the individual classifiers that are constructed using our proposed feature selection method SecCLS. Accordingly, we develop a system called SecureDroid which integrates our proposed methods (i.e., SecCLS and SecENS) to enhance security of machine learning-based Android malware detection. Comprehensive experiments on the real sample collections from Comodo Cloud Security Center are conducted to validate the effectiveness of SecureDroid against adversarial Android malware attacks by comparisons with other alternative defense methods. Our proposed secure-learning paradigm can also be readily applied to other malware detection tasks.

Hou, Shifu, Saas, Aaron, Chen, Lingwei, Ye, Yanfang, Bourlai, Thirimachos.  2017.  Deep Neural Networks for Automatic Android Malware Detection. Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining 2017. :803–810.
Because of the explosive growth of Android malware and due to the severity of its damages, the detection of Android malware has become an increasing important topic in cybersecurity. Currently, the major defense against Android malware is commercial mobile security products which mainly use signature-based method for detection. However, attackers can easily devise methods, such as obfuscation and repackaging, to evade the detection, which calls for new defensive techniques that are harder to evade. In this paper, resting on the analysis of Application Programming Interface (API) calls extracted from the smali files, we further categorize the API calls which belong to the some method in the smali code into a block. Based on the generated API call blocks, we then explore deep neural networks (i.e., Deep Belief Network (DBN) and Stacked AutoEncoders (SAEs)) for newly unknown Android malware detection. Using a real sample collection from Comodo Cloud Security Center, a comprehensive experimental study is performed to compare various malware detection approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that (1) our proposed feature extraction method (i.e., using API call blocks) outperforms using API calls directly in Android malware detection; (2) DBN works better than SAEs in this application; and (3) the detection performance of deep neural networks is better than shallow learning architectures.