Visible to the public Biblio

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Nishida, Kanata, Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Security Evaluation of Counter Synchronization Method for CAN Against DoS Attack. 2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :166–167.
MAC using a counter value in message authentication for in-vehicle network prevents replay attack. When synchronization deviation of the counter value occurs between the sender and receiver, a message cannot be authenticated correctly because the generated MACs are different. Thus, a counter synchronization method has been proposed. In addition, injection and replay attack of a synchronization message for the synchronization method have been performed. However, DoS attack on the synchronization method has not been conducted. This study performs DoS attack in order to evaluate security of the synchronization method. Experimental results reveal the vulnerability of the synchronization method against DoS attack.
Yoshikawa, Masaya, Nozaki, Yusuke.  2019.  Side-Channel Analysis for Searchable Encryption System and Its Security Evaluation. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :465–469.

Searchable encryption will become more important as medical services intensify their use of big data and artificial intelligence. To use searchable encryption safely, the resistance of terminals with embedded searchable encryption to illegal attacks (tamper resistance) is extremely important. This study proposes a searchable encryption system embedded in terminals and evaluate the tamper resistance of the proposed system. This study also proposes attack scenarios and quantitatively evaluates the tamper resistance of the proposed system by performing experiments following the proposed attack scenarios.

Takemoto, Shu, Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Statistical Power Analysis for IoT Device Oriented Encryption with Glitch Canceller. 2019 IEEE 11th International Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Applications (IWCIA). :73–76.

Big data which is collected by IoT devices is utilized in various businesses. For security and privacy, some data must be encrypted. IoT devices for encryption require not only to tamper resistance but also low latency and low power. PRINCE is one of the lowest latency cryptography. A glitch canceller reduces power consumption, although it affects tamper resistance. Therefore, this study evaluates the tamper resistance of dedicated hardware with glitch canceller for PRINCE by statistical power analysis and T-test. The evaluation experiments in this study performed on field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and the results revealed the vulnerability of dedicated hardware implementation with glitch canceller.

Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2019.  Countermeasure of Lightweight Physical Unclonable Function Against Side-Channel Attack. 2019 Cybersecurity and Cyberforensics Conference (CCC). :30–34.

In industrial internet of things, various devices are connected to external internet. For the connected devices, the authentication is very important in the viewpoint of security; therefore, physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have attracted attention as authentication techniques. On the other hand, the risk of modeling attacks on PUFs, which clone the function of PUFs mathematically, is pointed out. Therefore, a resistant-PUF such as a lightweight PUF has been proposed. However, new analytical methods (side-channel attacks: SCAs), which use side-channel information such as power or electromagnetic waves, have been proposed. The countermeasure method has also been proposed; however, an evaluation using actual devices has not been studied. Since PUFs use small production variations, the implementation evaluation is very important. Therefore, this study proposes a SCA countermeasure of the lightweight PUF. The proposed method is based on the previous studies, and maintains power consumption consistency during the generation of response. In experiments using a field programmable gate array, the measured power consumption was constant regardless of output values of the PUF could be confirmed. Then, experimental results showed that the predicted rate of the response was about 50 %, and the proposed method had a tamper resistance against SCAs.

Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2018.  Area Constraint Aware Physical Unclonable Function for Intelligence Module. 2018 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Applications (ICCIA). :205-209.

Artificial intelligence technology such as neural network (NN) is widely used in intelligence module for Internet of Things (IoT). On the other hand, the risk of illegal attacks for IoT devices is pointed out; therefore, security countermeasures such as an authentication are very important. In the field of hardware security, the physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have been attracted attention as authentication techniques to prevent the semiconductor counterfeits. However, implementation of the dedicated hardware for both of NN and PUF increases circuit area. Therefore, this study proposes a new area constraint aware PUF for intelligence module. The proposed PUF utilizes the propagation delay time from input layer to output layer of NN. To share component for operation, the proposed PUF reduces the circuit area. Experiments using a field programmable gate array evaluate circuit area and PUF performance. In the result of circuit area, the proposed PUF was smaller than the conventional PUFs was showed. Then, in the PUF performance evaluation, for steadiness, diffuseness, and uniqueness, favorable results were obtained.

Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2018.  EM Based Machine Learning Attack for XOR Arbiter PUF. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Machine Learning and Soft Computing. :19-23.

The physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have been attracted attention to prevent semiconductor counterfeits. However, the risk of machine learning attack for an arbiter PUF, which is one of the typical PUFs, has been reported. Therefore, an XOR arbiter PUF, which has a resistance against the machine learning attack, was proposed. However, in recent years, a new machine learning attack using power consumption during the operation of the PUF circuit was reported. Also, it is important that the detailed tamper resistance verification of the PUFs to consider the security of the PUFs in the future. Therefore, this study proposes a new machine learning attack using electromagnetic waveforms for the XOR arbiter PUF. Experiments by an actual device evaluate the validity of the proposed method and the security of the XOR arbiter PUF.

Yoshikawa, Masaya, Nozaki, Yusuke.  2018.  Lightweight Cipher Aware Countermeasure Using Random Number Masks and Its Evaluation. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Vision, Image and Signal Processing. :55:1-55:5.

Recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has left built-in devices vulnerable to interference from external networks. Power analysis attacks against cryptographic circuits are of particular concern, as they operate by illegally analyzing confidential information via power consumption of a cryptographic circuit. In response to these threats, many researchers have turned to lightweight ciphers, which can be embedded in small-scale circuits, coupled with countermeasures to increase built-in device security, even against power analysis attacks. However, while researchers have examined the efficacy of embedding lightweight ciphers in circuits, neither cost nor tamper resistance have been considered in detail. To use lightweight ciphers and improve tamper resistance in the future, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between the cost of embedding a lightweight cipher with a countermeasure against power analysis in a circuit and the tamper resistance of the cipher. Accordingly, the present study determined the tamper resistance of TWINE, a typical lightweight cipher, both with and without a countermeasure; costs were calculated for embedding the cipher with and without a countermeasure as well.

Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2017.  Tamper Resistance Evaluation of PUF Implementation Against Machine Learning Attack. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Biometrics Engineering and Application. :1–6.
Recently, the semiconductor counterfeiting has become a serious problem. To counter this problem, Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) has been attracted attention. However, the risk of machine learning attacks for PUF is pointed out. To verify the safety of PUF, the evaluation (tamper resistance) against machine learning attacks in the difference of PUF implementations is very important. However, the tamper resistance evaluation in the difference of PUF implementation has barely been reported. Therefore, this study evaluates the tamper resistance of PUF in the difference of field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations against machine learning attacks. Experiments using an FPGA clarified the arbiter PUF of the lookup table implementation has the tamper resistance against machine learning attacks.