Visible to the public Biblio

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Burr, B., Wang, S., Salmon, G., Soliman, H..  2020.  On the Detection of Persistent Attacks using Alert Graphs and Event Feature Embeddings. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—4.
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) generate a high volume of alerts that security analysts do not have the resources to explore fully. Modelling attacks, especially the coordinated campaigns of Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), in a visually-interpretable way is a useful approach for network security. Graph models combine multiple alerts and are well suited for visualization and interpretation, increasing security effectiveness. In this paper, we use feature embeddings, learned from network event logs, and community detection to construct and segment alert graphs of related alerts and networks hosts. We posit that such graphs can aid security analysts in investigating alerts and may capture multiple aspects of an APT attack. The eventual goal of this approach is to construct interpretable attack graphs and extract causality information to identify coordinated attacks.
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Cui, W., Li, X., Huang, J., Wang, W., Wang, S., Chen, J..  2020.  Substitute Model Generation for Black-Box Adversarial Attack Based on Knowledge Distillation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :648–652.
Although deep convolutional neural network (CNN) performs well in many computer vision tasks, its classification mechanism is very vulnerable when it is exposed to the perturbation of adversarial attacks. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm to generate the substitute model of black-box CNN models by using knowledge distillation. The proposed algorithm distills multiple CNN teacher models to a compact student model as the substitution of other black-box CNN models to be attacked. The black-box adversarial samples can be consequently generated on this substitute model by using various white-box attacking methods. According to our experiments on ResNet18 and DenseNet121, our algorithm boosts the attacking success rate (ASR) by 20% by training the substitute model based on knowledge distillation.
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Huang, M. Chiu, Wan, Y., Chiang, C., Wang, S..  2018.  Tor Browser Forensics in Exploring Invisible Evidence. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :3909-3914.
Given the high frequency of information security incidents, feeling that we may soon become innocent victims of these events may be justified. Perpetrators of information security offenses take advantage of several methods to leave no evidence of their crimes, and this pattern of hiding tracks has caused difficulties for investigators searching for digital evidence. Use of the onion router (Tor) is a common way for criminals to conceal their identities and tracks. This paper aims to explain the composition and operation of onion routing; we conduct a forensic experiment to detect the use of the Tor browser and compare several browser modes, including incognito and normal. Through the experimental method described in this paper, investigators can learn to identify perpetrators of Internet crimes, which will be helpful in future endeavors in digital forensics.
Huang, Y., Wang, S., Wang, Y., Li, H..  2020.  A New Four-Dimensional Chaotic System and Its Application in Speech Encryption. 2020 Information Communication Technologies Conference (ICTC). :171–175.
Traditional encryption algorithms are not suitable for modern mass speech situations, while some low-dimensional chaotic encryption algorithms are simple and easy to implement, but their key space often small, leading to poor security, so there is still a lot of room for improvement. Aiming at these problems, this paper proposes a new type of four-dimensional chaotic system and applies it to speech encryption. Simulation results show that the encryption scheme in this paper has higher key space and security, which can achieve the speech encryption goal.
Hufstetler, W. A., Ramos, M. J. H., Wang, S..  2017.  NFC Unlock: Secure Two-Factor Computer Authentication Using NFC. 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). :507–510.

Our project, NFC Unlock, implements a secure multifactor authentication system for computers using Near Field Communication technology. The application is written in C\# with pGina. It implements an NFC authentication which replaces the standard Windows credentials to allow the use of an NFC tag and a passcode to authenticate the user. Unlike the most prevalent multifactor authentication methods, NFC authentication does not require a user wait for an SMS code to type into the computer. A user enters a passcode and scans the NFC tag to log in. In order to prevent the data from being hacked, the system encrypts the NFC tag ID and the passcode with Advanced Encryption Standard. Users can easily register an NFC tag and link it to their computer account. The program also has several extra features including text alerts, record keeping of all login and login attempts, and a user-friendly configuration menu. Initial tests show that the NFC-based multifactor authentication system has the advantage of improved security with a simplified login process.

Hunag, C., Yang, C., Weng, C., Chen, Y., Wang, S..  2019.  Secure Protocol for Identity-based Provable Data Possession in Cloud Storage. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :327–331.
Remote data possession is becoming an increasingly important issue in cloud storage. It enables users to verify if their outsourced data have remained intact while in cloud storage. The existing remote data audit (RDA) protocols were designed with the public key infrastructure (PKI) system. However, this incurs considerable costs when users need to frequently access data from the cloud service provider with PKI. This study proposes a protocol, called identity-based RDA (ID-RDA) that addresses this problem without the need for users’ certificates. This study outperforms existing RDA protocols in computation and communication.
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Li, P., Liu, Q., Zhao, W., Wang, D., Wang, S..  2018.  Chronic Poisoning against Machine Learning Based IDSs Using Edge Pattern Detection. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1-7.

In big data era, machine learning is one of fundamental techniques in intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Poisoning attack, which is one of the most recognized security threats towards machine learning- based IDSs, injects some adversarial samples into the training phase, inducing data drifting of training data and a significant performance decrease of target IDSs over testing data. In this paper, we adopt the Edge Pattern Detection (EPD) algorithm to design a novel poisoning method that attack against several machine learning algorithms used in IDSs. Specifically, we propose a boundary pattern detection algorithm to efficiently generate the points that are near to abnormal data but considered to be normal ones by current classifiers. Then, we introduce a Batch-EPD Boundary Pattern (BEBP) detection algorithm to overcome the limitation of the number of edge pattern points generated by EPD and to obtain more useful adversarial samples. Based on BEBP, we further present a moderate but effective poisoning method called chronic poisoning attack. Extensive experiments on synthetic and three real network data sets demonstrate the performance of the proposed poisoning method against several well-known machine learning algorithms and a practical intrusion detection method named FMIFS-LSSVM-IDS.

Li, W., Liu, K., Wang, S., Lei, J., Li, E., Li, X..  2017.  Full-duplex relay for enhancing physical layer security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Optimal power allocation for minimizing secrecy outage probability. 2017 IEEE 17th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :906–910.
In this paper, we address the physical layer security problem for Wireless Sensor Networks in the presence of passive eavesdroppers, i.e., the eavesdroppers' channels are unknown to the transmitter. We use a multi-antenna relay to guarantee physical layer security. Different from the existing work, we consider that the relay works in full duplex mode and transmits artificial noise (AN) in both stages of the decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative strategy. We proposed two optimal power allocation strategies for power constrained and power unconstrained systems respectively. For power constrained system, our aim is to minimize the secrecy rate outage probability. And for power unconstrained systems, we obtain the optimal power allocation to minimize the total power under the quality of service and secrecy constraints. We also consider the secrecy outage probability for different positions of eavesdropper. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategies.
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Purohit, S., Calyam, P., Wang, S., Yempalla, R., Varghese, J..  2020.  DefenseChain: Consortium Blockchain for Cyber Threat Intelligence Sharing and Defense. 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS). :112—119.
Cloud-hosted applications are prone to targeted attacks such as DDoS, advanced persistent threats, cryptojacking which threaten service availability. Recently, methods for threat information sharing and defense require co-operation and trust between multiple domains/entities. There is a need for mechanisms that establish distributed trust to allow for such a collective defense. In this paper, we present a novel threat intelligence sharing and defense system, namely “DefenseChain”, to allow organizations to have incentive-based and trustworthy co-operation to mitigate the impact of cyber attacks. Our solution approach features a consortium Blockchain platform to obtain threat data and select suitable peers to help with attack detection and mitigation. We propose an economic model for creation and sustenance of the consortium with peers through a reputation estimation scheme that uses `Quality of Detection' and `Quality of Mitigation' metrics. Our evaluation experiments with DefenseChain implementation are performed on an Open Cloud testbed with Hyperledger Composer and in a simulation environment. Our results show that the DefenseChain system overall performs better than state-of-the-art decision making schemes in choosing the most appropriate detector and mitigator peers. In addition, we show that our DefenseChain achieves better performance trade-offs in terms of metrics such as detection time, mitigation time and attack reoccurence rate. Lastly, our validation results demonstrate that our DefenseChain can effectively identify rational/irrational service providers.
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Wang, P., Zhang, J., Wang, S., Wu, D..  2020.  Quantitative Assessment on the Limitations of Code Randomization for Legacy Binaries. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :1–16.
Software development and deployment are generally fast-pacing practices, yet to date there is still a significant amount of legacy software running in various critical industries with years or even decades of lifespans. As the source code of some legacy software became unavailable, it is difficult for maintainers to actively patch the vulnerabilities, leaving the outdated binaries appealing targets of advanced security attacks. One of the most powerful attacks today is code reuse, a technique that can circumvent most existing system-level security facilities. While there have been various countermeasures against code reuse, applying them to sourceless software appears to be exceptionally challenging. Fine-grained code randomization is considered to be an effective strategy to impede modern code-reuse attacks. To apply it to legacy software, a technique called binary rewriting is employed to directly reconstruct binaries without symbol or relocation information. However, we found that current rewriting-based randomization techniques, regardless of their designs and implementations, share a common security defect such that the randomized binaries may remain vulnerable in certain cases. Indeed, our finding does not invalidate fine-grained code randomization as a meaningful defense against code reuse attacks, for it significantly raises the bar for exploits to be successful. Nevertheless, it is critical for the maintainers of legacy software systems to be aware of this problem and obtain a quantitative assessment of the risks in adopting a potentially incomprehensive defense. In this paper, we conducted a systematic investigation into the effectiveness of randomization techniques designed for hardening outdated binaries. We studied various state-of-the-art, fine-grained randomization tools, confirming that all of them can leave a certain part of the retrofitted binary code still reusable. To quantify the risks, we proposed a set of concrete criteria to classify gadgets immune to rewriting-based randomization and investigated their availability and capability.
Wang, S., Yang, Y., Liu, S..  2020.  Research on Audit Model of Dameng Database based on Security Configuration Baseline. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :833–836.
Compared with traditional databases such as Oracle database, SQL Server database and MySQL database, Dameng database is a domestic database with independent intellectual property rights. Combined with the security management of Dameng database and the requirement of database audit, this paper designs the security configuration baseline of Dameng database. By designing the security configuration baseline of Dameng database, the audit work of Dameng database can be carried out efficiently, and by analyzing the audit results, the security configuration baseline of Dameng database can be improved.
Wang, S., Orwell, J., Hunter, G..  2014.  Evaluation of Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer approaches to fusion of video surveillance information. Information Fusion (FUSION), 2014 17th International Conference on. :1-7.

This paper presents the application of fusion meth- ods to a visual surveillance scenario. The range of relevant features for re-identifying vehicles is discussed, along with the methods for fusing probabilistic estimates derived from these estimates. In particular, two statistical parametric fusion methods are considered: Bayesian Networks and the Dempster Shafer approach. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a metric to allow direct comparison of the benefits of the two methods. This is achieved by generalising the Kelly betting strategy to accommodate a variable total stake for each sample, subject to a fixed expected (mean) stake. This metric provides a method to quantify the extra information provided by the Dempster-Shafer method, in comparison to a Bayesian Fusion approach. 

Wang, S., Mei, Y., Park, J., Zhang, M..  2019.  A Two-Stage Genetic Programming Hyper-Heuristic for Uncertain Capacitated Arc Routing Problem. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :1606—1613.

Genetic Programming Hyper-heuristic (GPHH) has been successfully applied to automatically evolve effective routing policies to solve the complex Uncertain Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (UCARP). However, GPHH typically ignores the interpretability of the evolved routing policies. As a result, GP-evolved routing policies are often very complex and hard to be understood and trusted by human users. In this paper, we aim to improve the interpretability of the GP-evolved routing policies. To this end, we propose a new Multi-Objective GP (MOGP) to optimise the performance and size simultaneously. A major issue here is that the size is much easier to be optimised than the performance, and the search tends to be biased to the small but poor routing policies. To address this issue, we propose a simple yet effective Two-Stage GPHH (TS-GPHH). In the first stage, only the performance is to be optimised. Then, in the second stage, both objectives are considered (using our new MOGP). The experimental results showed that TS-GPHH could obtain much smaller and more interpretable routing policies than the state-of-the-art single-objective GPHH, without deteriorating the performance. Compared with traditional MOGP, TS-GPHH can obtain a much better and more widespread Pareto front.

Wang, S., Zhu, S., Zhang, Y..  2018.  Blockchain-Based Mutual Authentication Security Protocol for Distributed RFID Systems. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :00074–00077.

Since radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been used in various scenarios such as supply chain, access control system and credit card, tremendous efforts have been made to improve the authentication between tags and readers to prevent potential attacks. Though effective in certain circumstances, these existing methods usually require a server to maintain a database of identity related information for every tag, which makes the system vulnerable to the SQL injection attack and not suitable for distributed environment. To address these problems, we now propose a novel blockchain-based mutual authentication security protocol. In this new scheme, there is no need for the trusted third parties to provide security and privacy for the system. Authentication is executed as an unmodifiable transaction based on blockchain rather than database, which applies to distributed RFID systems with high security demand and relatively low real-time requirement. Analysis shows that our protocol is logically correct and can prevent multiple attacks.

Wang, S., Zhou, Y., Guo, R., Du, J., Du, J..  2018.  A Novel Route Randomization Approach for Moving Target Defense. 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :11–15.
Route randomization is an important research focus for moving target defense which seeks to proactively and dynamically change the forwarding routes in the network. In this paper, the difficulties of implementing route randomization in traditional networks are analyzed. To solve these difficulties and achieve effective route randomization, a novel route randomization approach is proposed, which is implemented by adding a mapping layer between routers' physical interfaces and their corresponding logical addresses. The design ideas and the details of proposed approach are presented. The effectiveness and performance of proposed approach are verified and evaluated by corresponding experiments.
Wang, S., Yan, Q., Chen, Z., Yang, B., Zhao, C., Conti, M..  2017.  TextDroid: Semantics-based detection of mobile malware using network flows. 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :18–23.

The wide-spreading mobile malware has become a dreadful issue in the increasingly popular mobile networks. Most of the mobile malware relies on network interface to coordinate operations, steal users' private information, and launch attack activities. In this paper, we propose TextDroid, an effective and automated malware detection method combining natural language processing and machine learning. TextDroid can extract distinguishable features (n-gram sequences) to characterize malware samples. A malware detection model is then developed to detect mobile malware using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The trained SVM model presents a superior performance on two different data sets, with the malware detection rate reaching 96.36% in the test set and 76.99% in an app set captured in the wild, respectively. In addition, we also design a flow header visualization method to visualize the highlighted texts generated during the apps' network interactions, which assists security researchers in understanding the apps' complex network activities.

Wang, X., Lin, S., Wang, S., Shi, J., Zhang, C..  2017.  A multi-fault diagnosis strategy of electro-hydraulic servo actuation system based on extended Kalman filter. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS) and IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM). :614–619.

Electro-hydraulic servo actuation system is a mechanical, electrical and hydraulic mixing complex system. If it can't be repaired for a long time, it is necessary to consider the possibility of occurrence of multiple faults. Considering this possibility, this paper presents an extended Kalman filter (EKF) based method for multiple faults diagnosis. Through analysing the failure modes and mechanism of the electro-hydraulic servo actuation system and modelling selected typical failure modes, the relationship between the key parameters of the system and the faults is obtained. The extended Kalman filter which is a commonly used algorithm for estimating parameters is used to on-line fault diagnosis. Then use the extended Kalman filter to diagnose potential faults. The simulation results show that the multi-fault diagnosis method based on extended Kalman filter is effective for multi-fault diagnosis of electro-hydraulic servo actuation system.

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Xin, B., Yang, W., Geng, Y., Chen, S., Wang, S., Huang, L..  2020.  Private FL-GAN: Differential Privacy Synthetic Data Generation Based on Federated Learning. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2927–2931.
Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) has already made a big splash in the field of generating realistic "fake" data. However, when data is distributed and data-holders are reluctant to share data for privacy reasons, GAN's training is difficult. To address this issue, we propose private FL-GAN, a differential privacy generative adversarial network model based on federated learning. By strategically combining the Lipschitz limit with the differential privacy sensitivity, the model can generate high-quality synthetic data without sacrificing the privacy of the training data. We theoretically prove that private FL-GAN can provide strict privacy guarantee with differential privacy, and experimentally demonstrate our model can generate satisfactory data.
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Zeng, J., Dong, L., Wu, Y., Chen, H., Li, C., Wang, S..  2017.  Privacy-Preserving and Multi-Dimensional Range Query in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks. GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–7.

With the advancement of sensor electronic devices, wireless sensor networks have attracted more and more attention. Range query has become a significant part of sensor networks due to its availability and convenience. However, It is challenging to process range query while still protecting sensitive data from disclosure. Existing work mainly focuses on privacy- preserving range query, but neglects the damage of collusion attacks, probability attacks and differential attacks. In this paper, we propose a privacy- preserving, energy-efficient and multi-dimensional range query protocol called PERQ, which not only achieves data privacy, but also considers collusion attacks, probability attacks and differential attacks. Generalized distance-based and modular arithmetic range query mechanism are used. In addition, a novel cyclic modular verification scheme is proposed to verify the data integrity. Extensive theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm the high performance of PERQ in terms of energy efficiency, security and accountability requirements.