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Yu, Jing, Fu, Yao, Zheng, Yanan, Wang, Zheng, Ye, Xiaojun.  2019.  Test4Deep: An Effective White-Box Testing for Deep Neural Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :16–23.

Current testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) focuses on quantity of test cases but ignores diversity. To the best of our knowledge, DeepXplore is the first white-box framework for Deep Learning testing by triggering differential behaviors between multiple DNNs and increasing neuron coverage to improve diversity. Since it is based on multiple DNNs facing problems that (1) the framework is not friendly to a single DNN, (2) if incorrect predictions made by all DNNs simultaneously, DeepXplore cannot generate test cases. This paper presents Test4Deep, a white-box testing framework based on a single DNN. Test4Deep avoids mistakes of multiple DNNs by inducing inconsistencies between predicted labels of original inputs and that of generated test inputs. Meanwhile, Test4Deep improves neuron coverage to capture more diversity by attempting to activate more inactivated neurons. The proposed method was evaluated on three popular datasets with nine DNNs. Compared to DeepXplore, Test4Deep produced average 4.59% (maximum 10.49%) more test cases that all found errors and faults of DNNs. These test cases got 19.57% more diversity increment and 25.88% increment of neuron coverage. Test4Deep can further be used to improve the accuracy of DNNs by average up to 5.72% (maximum 7.0%).

Zheng, Yanan, Wen, Lijie, Wang, Jianmin, Yan, Jun, Ji, Lei.  2017.  Sequence Modeling with Hierarchical Deep Generative Models with Dual Memory. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. :1369–1378.

Deep Generative Models (DGMs) are able to extract high-level representations from massive unlabeled data and are explainable from a probabilistic perspective. Such characteristics favor sequence modeling tasks. However, it still remains a huge challenge to model sequences with DGMs. Unlike real-valued data that can be directly fed into models, sequence data consist of discrete elements and require being transformed into certain representations first. This leads to the following two challenges. First, high-level features are sensitive to small variations of inputs as well as the way of representing data. Second, the models are more likely to lose long-term information during multiple transformations. In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical Deep Generative Model With Dual Memory to address the two challenges. Furthermore, we provide a method to efficiently perform inference and learning on the model. The proposed model extends basic DGMs with an improved hierarchically organized multi-layer architecture. Besides, our model incorporates memories along dual directions, respectively denoted as broad memory and deep memory. The model is trained end-to-end by optimizing a variational lower bound on data log-likelihood using the improved stochastic variational method. We perform experiments on several tasks with various datasets and obtain excellent results. The results of language modeling show our method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art results in terms of generative performance. Extended experiments including document modeling and sentiment analysis, prove the high-effectiveness of dual memory mechanism and latent representations. Text random generation provides a straightforward perception for advantages of our model.