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Fan, M., Yu, L., Chen, S., Zhou, H., Luo, X., Li, S., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Liu, T..  2020.  An Empirical Evaluation of GDPR Compliance Violations in Android mHealth Apps. 2020 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE). :253—264.

The purpose of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to provide improved privacy protection. If an app controls personal data from users, it needs to be compliant with GDPR. However, GDPR lists general rules rather than exact step-by-step guidelines about how to develop an app that fulfills the requirements. Therefore, there may exist GDPR compliance violations in existing apps, which would pose severe privacy threats to app users. In this paper, we take mobile health applications (mHealth apps) as a peephole to examine the status quo of GDPR compliance in Android apps. We first propose an automated system, named HPDROID, to bridge the semantic gap between the general rules of GDPR and the app implementations by identifying the data practices declared in the app privacy policy and the data relevant behaviors in the app code. Then, based on HPDROID, we detect three kinds of GDPR compliance violations, including the incompleteness of privacy policy, the inconsistency of data collections, and the insecurity of data transmission. We perform an empirical evaluation of 796 mHealth apps. The results reveal that 189 (23.7%) of them do not provide complete privacy policies. Moreover, 59 apps collect sensitive data through different measures, but 46 (77.9%) of them contain at least one inconsistent collection behavior. Even worse, among the 59 apps, only 8 apps try to ensure the transmission security of collected data. However, all of them contain at least one encryption or SSL misuse. Our work exposes severe privacy issues to raise awareness of privacy protection for app users and developers.

Fan, M., Luo, X., Liu, J., Wang, M., Nong, C., Zheng, Q., Liu, T..  2019.  Graph Embedding Based Familial Analysis of Android Malware using Unsupervised Learning. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :771—782.

The rapid growth of Android malware has posed severe security threats to smartphone users. On the basis of the familial trait of Android malware observed by previous work, the familial analysis is a promising way to help analysts better focus on the commonalities of malware samples within the same families, thus reducing the analytical workload and accelerating malware analysis. The majority of existing approaches rely on supervised learning and face three main challenges, i.e., low accuracy, low efficiency, and the lack of labeled dataset. To address these challenges, we first construct a fine-grained behavior model by abstracting the program semantics into a set of subgraphs. Then, we propose SRA, a novel feature that depicts the similarity relationships between the Structural Roles of sensitive API call nodes in subgraphs. An SRA is obtained based on graph embedding techniques and represented as a vector, thus we can effectively reduce the high complexity of graph matching. After that, instead of training a classifier with labeled samples, we construct malware link network based on SRAs and apply community detection algorithms on it to group the unlabeled samples into groups. We implement these ideas in a system called GefDroid that performs Graph embedding based familial analysis of AnDroid malware using unsupervised learning. Moreover, we conduct extensive experiments to evaluate GefDroid on three datasets with ground truth. The results show that GefDroid can achieve high agreements (0.707-0.883 in term of NMI) between the clustering results and the ground truth. Furthermore, GefDroid requires only linear run-time overhead and takes around 8.6s to analyze a sample on average, which is considerably faster than the previous work.

Liu, C., Feng, Y., Fan, M., Wang, G..  2008.  PKI Mesh Trust Model Based on Trusted Computing. 2008 The 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists. :1401–1405.

Different organizations or countries maybe adopt different PKI trust model in real applications. On a large scale, all certification authorities (CA) and end entities construct a huge mesh network. PKI trust model exhibits unstructured mesh network as a whole. However, mesh trust model worsens computational complexity in certification path processing when the number of PKI domains increases. This paper proposes an enhanced mesh trust model for PKI. Keys generation and signature are fulfilled in Trusted Platform Module (TPM) for higher security level. An algorithm is suggested to improve the performance of certification path processing in this model. This trust model is less complex but more efficient and robust than the existing PKI trust models.