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Chen, Pin-Yu, Zhang, Huan, Sharma, Yash, Yi, Jinfeng, Hsieh, Cho-Jui.  2017.  ZOO: Zeroth Order Optimization Based Black-box Attacks to Deep Neural Networks Without Training Substitute Models. Proceedings of the 10th ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security. :15–26.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are one of the most prominent technologies of our time, as they achieve state-of-the-art performance in many machine learning tasks, including but not limited to image classification, text mining, and speech processing. However, recent research on DNNs has indicated ever-increasing concern on the robustness to adversarial examples, especially for security-critical tasks such as traffic sign identification for autonomous driving. Studies have unveiled the vulnerability of a well-trained DNN by demonstrating the ability of generating barely noticeable (to both human and machines) adversarial images that lead to misclassification. Furthermore, researchers have shown that these adversarial images are highly transferable by simply training and attacking a substitute model built upon the target model, known as a black-box attack to DNNs. Similar to the setting of training substitute models, in this paper we propose an effective black-box attack that also only has access to the input (images) and the output (confidence scores) of a targeted DNN. However, different from leveraging attack transferability from substitute models, we propose zeroth order optimization (ZOO) based attacks to directly estimate the gradients of the targeted DNN for generating adversarial examples. We use zeroth order stochastic coordinate descent along with dimension reduction, hierarchical attack and importance sampling techniques to efficiently attack black-box models. By exploiting zeroth order optimization, improved attacks to the targeted DNN can be accomplished, sparing the need for training substitute models and avoiding the loss in attack transferability. Experimental results on MNIST, CIFAR10 and ImageNet show that the proposed ZOO attack is as effective as the state-of-the-art white-box attack (e.g., Carlini and Wagner's attack) and significantly outperforms existing black-box attacks via substitute models.
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Zhao, Pu, Liu, Sijia, Chen, Pin-Yu, Hoang, Nghia, Xu, Kaidi, Kailkhura, Bhavya, Lin, Xue.  2019.  On the Design of Black-Box Adversarial Examples by Leveraging Gradient-Free Optimization and Operator Splitting Method. 2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :121—130.
Robust machine learning is currently one of the most prominent topics which could potentially help shaping a future of advanced AI platforms that not only perform well in average cases but also in worst cases or adverse situations. Despite the long-term vision, however, existing studies on black-box adversarial attacks are still restricted to very specific settings of threat models (e.g., single distortion metric and restrictive assumption on target model's feedback to queries) and/or suffer from prohibitively high query complexity. To push for further advances in this field, we introduce a general framework based on an operator splitting method, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to devise efficient, robust black-box attacks that work with various distortion metrics and feedback settings without incurring high query complexity. Due to the black-box nature of the threat model, the proposed ADMM solution framework is integrated with zeroth-order (ZO) optimization and Bayesian optimization (BO), and thus is applicable to the gradient-free regime. This results in two new black-box adversarial attack generation methods, ZO-ADMM and BO-ADMM. Our empirical evaluations on image classification datasets show that our proposed approaches have much lower function query complexities compared to state-of-the-art attack methods, but achieve very competitive attack success rates.