Visible to the public Biblio

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Fan, M., Yu, L., Chen, S., Zhou, H., Luo, X., Li, S., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Liu, T..  2020.  An Empirical Evaluation of GDPR Compliance Violations in Android mHealth Apps. 2020 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE). :253—264.

The purpose of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to provide improved privacy protection. If an app controls personal data from users, it needs to be compliant with GDPR. However, GDPR lists general rules rather than exact step-by-step guidelines about how to develop an app that fulfills the requirements. Therefore, there may exist GDPR compliance violations in existing apps, which would pose severe privacy threats to app users. In this paper, we take mobile health applications (mHealth apps) as a peephole to examine the status quo of GDPR compliance in Android apps. We first propose an automated system, named HPDROID, to bridge the semantic gap between the general rules of GDPR and the app implementations by identifying the data practices declared in the app privacy policy and the data relevant behaviors in the app code. Then, based on HPDROID, we detect three kinds of GDPR compliance violations, including the incompleteness of privacy policy, the inconsistency of data collections, and the insecurity of data transmission. We perform an empirical evaluation of 796 mHealth apps. The results reveal that 189 (23.7%) of them do not provide complete privacy policies. Moreover, 59 apps collect sensitive data through different measures, but 46 (77.9%) of them contain at least one inconsistent collection behavior. Even worse, among the 59 apps, only 8 apps try to ensure the transmission security of collected data. However, all of them contain at least one encryption or SSL misuse. Our work exposes severe privacy issues to raise awareness of privacy protection for app users and developers.

Fan, M., Luo, X., Liu, J., Wang, M., Nong, C., Zheng, Q., Liu, T..  2019.  Graph Embedding Based Familial Analysis of Android Malware using Unsupervised Learning. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :771—782.

The rapid growth of Android malware has posed severe security threats to smartphone users. On the basis of the familial trait of Android malware observed by previous work, the familial analysis is a promising way to help analysts better focus on the commonalities of malware samples within the same families, thus reducing the analytical workload and accelerating malware analysis. The majority of existing approaches rely on supervised learning and face three main challenges, i.e., low accuracy, low efficiency, and the lack of labeled dataset. To address these challenges, we first construct a fine-grained behavior model by abstracting the program semantics into a set of subgraphs. Then, we propose SRA, a novel feature that depicts the similarity relationships between the Structural Roles of sensitive API call nodes in subgraphs. An SRA is obtained based on graph embedding techniques and represented as a vector, thus we can effectively reduce the high complexity of graph matching. After that, instead of training a classifier with labeled samples, we construct malware link network based on SRAs and apply community detection algorithms on it to group the unlabeled samples into groups. We implement these ideas in a system called GefDroid that performs Graph embedding based familial analysis of AnDroid malware using unsupervised learning. Moreover, we conduct extensive experiments to evaluate GefDroid on three datasets with ground truth. The results show that GefDroid can achieve high agreements (0.707-0.883 in term of NMI) between the clustering results and the ground truth. Furthermore, GefDroid requires only linear run-time overhead and takes around 8.6s to analyze a sample on average, which is considerably faster than the previous work.

Liu, D. Y. W., Leung, A. C. Y., Au, M. H., Luo, X., Chiu, P. H. P., Im, S. W. T., Lam, W. W. M..  2019.  Virtual Laboratory: Facilitating Teaching and Learning in Cybersecurity for Students with Diverse Disciplines. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Education (TALE). :1—6.

Cybersecurity education is a pressing need, when computer systems and mobile devices are ubiquitous and so are the associated threats. However, in the teaching and learning process of cybersecurity, it is challenging when the students are from diverse disciplines with various academic backgrounds. In this project, a number of virtual laboratories are developed to facilitate the teaching and learning process in a cybersecurity course. The aim of the laboratories is to strengthen students’ understanding of cybersecurity topics, and to provide students hands-on experience of encountering various security threats. The results of this project indicate that virtual laboratories do facilitate the teaching and learning process in cybersecurity for diverse discipline students. Also, we observed that there is an underestimation of the difficulty of studying cybersecurity by the students due to the general image of cybersecurity in public, which had a negative impact on the student’s interest in studying cybersecurity.

Wei, P., Xia, B., Luo, X..  2017.  Parameter estimation and convergence analysis for a class of canonical dynamic systems by extended kalman filter. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Control Science and Systems Engineering (ICCSSE). :336–340.

There were many researches about the parameter estimation of canonical dynamic systems recently. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) is a popular parameter estimation method in virtue of its easy applications. This paper focuses on parameter estimation for a class of canonical dynamic systems by EKF. By constructing associated differential equation, the convergence of EKF parameter estimation for the canonical dynamic systems is analyzed. And the simulation demonstrates the good performance.

Luo, X., Chen, K., Pang, G., Shou, L., Chen, G..  2017.  Visible Nearest Neighbor Search for Objects Moving on Consecutive Trajectories. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications and 2017 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications (ISPA/IUCC). :1296–1303.

A visible nearest neighbor (VNN) query returns the k nearest objects that are visible to a query point, which is used to support various applications such as route planning, target monitoring, and antenna placement. However, with the proliferation of wireless communications and advances in positioning technology for mobile equipments, efficiently searching for VNN among moving objects are required. While most previous work on VNN query focused on static objects, in this paper, we treats the objects as moving consecutively when indexing them, and study the visible nearest neighbor query for moving objects (MVNN) . Assuming that the objects are represented as trajectories given by linear functions of time, we propose a scheme which indexes the moving objects by time-parameterized R-tree (TPR-tree) and obstacles by R-tree. The paper offers four heuristics for visibility and space pruning. New algorithms, Post-pruning and United-pruning, are developed for efficiently solving MVNN queries with all four heuristics. The effectiveness and efficiency of our solutions are verified by extensive experiments over synthetic datasets on real road network.