Visible to the public Biblio

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Conference Paper
Gautam, A., Singh, S..  2020.  A Comparative Analysis of Deep Learning based Super-Resolution Techniques for Thermal Videos. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :919—925.

Video streams acquired from thermal cameras are proven to be beneficial in diverse number of fields including military, healthcare, law enforcement, and security. Despite the hype, thermal imaging is increasingly affected by poor resolution, where it has expensive optical sensors and inability to attain optical precision. In recent years, deep learning based super-resolution algorithms are developed to enhance the video frame resolution at high accuracy. This paper presents a comparative analysis of super resolution (SR) techniques based on deep neural networks (DNN) that are applied on thermal video dataset. SRCNN, EDSR, Auto-encoder, and SRGAN are also discussed and investigated. Further the results on benchmark thermal datasets including FLIR, OSU thermal pedestrian database and OSU color thermal database are evaluated and analyzed. Based on the experimental results, it is concluded that, SRGAN has delivered a superior performance on thermal frames when compared to other techniques and improvements, which has the ability to provide state-of-the art performance in real time operations.

Aggarwal, P., Maqbool, Z., Grover, A., Pammi, V. S. C., Singh, S., Dutt, V..  2015.  Cyber security: A game-theoretic analysis of defender and attacker strategies in defacing-website games. 2015 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1–8.

The rate at which cyber-attacks are increasing globally portrays a terrifying picture upfront. The main dynamics of such attacks could be studied in terms of the actions of attackers and defenders in a cyber-security game. However currently little research has taken place to study such interactions. In this paper we use behavioral game theory and try to investigate the role of certain actions taken by attackers and defenders in a simulated cyber-attack scenario of defacing a website. We choose a Reinforcement Learning (RL) model to represent a simulated attacker and a defender in a 2×4 cyber-security game where each of the 2 players could take up to 4 actions. A pair of model participants were computationally simulated across 1000 simulations where each pair played at most 30 rounds in the game. The goal of the attacker was to deface the website and the goal of the defender was to prevent the attacker from doing so. Our results show that the actions taken by both the attackers and defenders are a function of attention paid by these roles to their recently obtained outcomes. It was observed that if attacker pays more attention to recent outcomes then he is more likely to perform attack actions. We discuss the implication of our results on the evolution of dynamics between attackers and defenders in cyber-security games.

Kaur, R., Singh, S..  2015.  Detecting anomalies in Online Social Networks using graph metrics. 2015 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON). :1–6.

Online Social Networks have emerged as an interesting area for analysis where each user having a personalized user profile interact and share information with each other. Apart from analyzing the structural characteristics, detection of abnormal and anomalous activities in social networks has become need of the hour. These anomalous activities represent the rare and mischievous activities that take place in the network. Graphical structure of social networks has encouraged the researchers to use various graph metrics to detect the anomalous activities. One such measure that seemed to be highly beneficial to detect the anomalies was brokerage value which helped to detect the anomalies with high accuracy. Also, further application of the measure to different datasets verified the fact that the anomalous behavior detected by the proposed measure was efficient as compared to the already proposed measures in Oddball Algorithm.

Singh, S., Nasoz, F..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 10th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0324—0328.

Emotions are a powerful tool in communication and one way that humans show their emotions is through their facial expressions. One of the challenging and powerful tasks in social communications is facial expression recognition, as in non-verbal communication, facial expressions are key. In the field of Artificial Intelligence, Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is an active research area, with several recent studies using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In this paper, we demonstrate the classification of FER based on static images, using CNNs, without requiring any pre-processing or feature extraction tasks. The paper also illustrates techniques to improve future accuracy in this area by using pre-processing, which includes face detection and illumination correction. Feature extraction is used to extract the most prominent parts of the face, including the jaw, mouth, eyes, nose, and eyebrows. Furthermore, we also discuss the literature review and present our CNN architecture, and the challenges of using max-pooling and dropout, which eventually aided in better performance. We obtained a test accuracy of 61.7% on FER2013 in a seven-classes classification task compared to 75.2% in state-of-the-art classification.

Kaur, S., Singh, S..  2020.  Highly Secured all Optical DIM Codes using AND Gate. 2020 Indo – Taiwan 2nd International Conference on Computing, Analytics and Networks (Indo-Taiwan ICAN). :64—68.
Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) is an inevitable innovation to cope up with the impediments of regularly expanding information traffic and numerous user accesses in optical systems. In Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA systems cross correlation and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are utmost concerns. For eliminating the cross correlation, reducing the MAI and to enhance the security, in this work, all optical Diagonal Identity Matrices codes (DIM) with Zero Cross-Correlation (ZCC) and optical gating are presented. Chip rate of the proposed work is 0.03 ns and total 60 users are considered with semiconductor optical amplifier based AND operation. Effects of optical gating are analyzed in the presence/absence of eavesdropper in terms of Q factor and received extinction ratio. Proposed system has advantages for service provider because this is mapping free technique and can be easily designed for large number of users.
Singh, S., Sharma, S..  2014.  Improving security mechanism to access HDFS data by mobile consumers using middleware-layer framework. Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2014 International Conference on. :1-7.

Revolution in the field of technology leads to the development of cloud computing which delivers on-demand and easy access to the large shared pools of online stored data, softwares and applications. It has changed the way of utilizing the IT resources but at the compromised cost of security breaches as well such as phishing attacks, impersonation, lack of confidentiality and integrity. Thus this research work deals with the core problem of providing absolute security to the mobile consumers of public cloud to improve the mobility of user's, accessing data stored on public cloud securely using tokens without depending upon the third party to generate them. This paper presents the approach of simplifying the process of authenticating and authorizing the mobile user's by implementing middleware-centric framework called MiLAMob model with the huge online data storage system i.e. HDFS. It allows the consumer's to access the data from HDFS via mobiles or through the social networking sites eg. facebook, gmail, yahoo etc using OAuth 2.0 protocol. For authentication, the tokens are generated using one-time password generation technique and then encrypting them using AES method. By implementing the flexible user based policies and standards, this model improves the authorization process.

Singh, S., Singh, N..  2015.  Internet of Things (IoT): Security challenges, business opportunities reference architecture for E-commerce. 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT). :1577–1581.

The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a diverse technology and usage with unprecedented business opportunities and risks. The Internet of Things is changing the dynamics of security industry & reshaping it. It allows data to be transferred seamlessly among physical devices to the Internet. The growth of number of intelligent devices will create a network rich with information that allows supply chains to assemble and communicate in new ways. The technology research firm Gartner predicts that there will be 26 billion installed units on the Internet of Things (IoT) by 2020[1]. This paper explains the concept of Internet of Things (IoT), its characteristics, explain security challenges, technology adoption trends & suggests a reference architecture for E-commerce enterprise.

Singh, S., Saini, H. S..  2018.  Security approaches for data aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks against Sybil Attack. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :190–193.
A wireless sensor network consists of many important elements like Sensors, Bass station and User. A Sensor can measure many non electrical quantities like pressure, temperature, sound, etc and transmit this information to the base station by using internal transreceiver. A security of this transmitted data is very important as the data may contain important information. As wireless sensor network have many application in the military and civil domains so security of wireless sensor network become a critical concern. A Sybil attack is one of critical attack which can affect the routing protocols, fair resourse allocation, data aggregation and misbehavior detection parameters of network. A number of detection techniques to detect Sybil nodes have already designed to overcome the Sybil attack. Out of all the techniques few techniques which can improve the true detection rate and reduce false detection rate are discussed in this paper.
Kaur, R., Singh, A., Singh, S., Sharma, S..  2016.  Security of software defined networks: Taxonomic modeling, key components and open research area. 2016 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT). :2832–2839.

Software defined networking promises network operators to dramatically simplify network management. It provides flexibility and innovation through network programmability. With SDN, network management moves from codifying functionality in terms of low-level device configuration to building software that facilitates network management and debugging[1]. SDN provides new techniques to solve long-standing problems in networking like routing by separating the complexity of state distribution from network specification. Despite all the hype surrounding SDNs, exploiting its full potential is demanding. Security is still the major issue and a striking challenge that reduces the growth of SDNs. Moreover the introduction of various architectural components and up cycling of novel entities of SDN poses new security issues and threats. SDN is considered as major target for digital threats and cyber-attacks[2] and have more devastating effects than simple networks. Initial SDN design doesn't considered security as its part; therefore, it must be raised on the agenda. This article discusses the security solutions proposed to secure SDNs. We categorize the security solutions in the article by presenting a thematic taxonomy based on SDN architectural layers/interfaces[3], security measures and goals, simulation framework. Moreover, the literature also points out the possible attacks[2] targeting different layers/interfaces of SDNs. For securing SDNs, the potential requirements and their key enablers are also identified and presented. Also, the articles sketch the design of secure and dependable SDNs. At last, we discuss open issues and challenges of SDN security that may be rated appropriate to be handled by professionals and researchers in the future.