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Conference Paper
Kong, F., Xu, M., Weimer, J., Sokolsky, O., Lee, I..  2018.  Cyber-Physical System Checkpointing and Recovery. 2018 ACM/IEEE 9th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS). :22-31.

Transitioning to more open architectures has been making Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) vulnerable to malicious attacks that are beyond the conventional cyber attacks. This paper studies attack-resilience enhancement for a system under emerging attacks in the environment of the controller. An effective way to address this problem is to make system state estimation accurate enough for control regardless of the compromised components. This work follows this way and develops a procedure named CPS checkpointing and recovery, which leverages historical data to recover failed system states. Specially, we first propose a new concept of physical-state recovery. The essential operation is defined as rolling the system forward starting from a consistent historical system state. Second, we design a checkpointing protocol that defines how to record system states for the recovery. The protocol introduces a sliding window that accommodates attack-detection delay to improve the correctness of stored states. Third, we present a use case of CPS checkpointing and recovery that deals with compromised sensor measurements. At last, we evaluate our design through conducting simulator-based experiments and illustrating the use of our design with an unmanned vehicle case study.

Huang, N., Xu, M., Zheng, N., Qiao, T., Choo, K. R..  2019.  Deep Android Malware Classification with API-Based Feature Graph. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :296—303.

The rapid growth of Android malware apps poses a great security threat to users thus it is very important and urgent to detect Android malware effectively. What's more, the increasing unknown malware and evasion technique also call for novel detection method. In this paper, we focus on API feature and develop a novel method to detect Android malware. First, we propose a novel selection method for API feature related with the malware class. However, such API also has a legitimate use in benign app thus causing FP problem (misclassify benign as malware). Second, we further explore structure relationships between these APIs and map to a matrix interpreted as the hand-refined API-based feature graph. Third, a CNN-based classifier is developed for the API-based feature graph classification. Evaluations of a real-world dataset containing 3,697 malware apps and 3,312 benign apps demonstrate that selected API feature is effective for Android malware classification, just top 20 APIs can achieve high F1 of 94.3% under Random Forest classifier. When the available API features are few, classification performance including FPR indicator can achieve effective improvement effectively by complementing our further work.

Xu, M., Huber, M., Sun, Z., England, P., Peinado, M., Lee, S., Marochko, A., Mattoon, D., Spiger, R., Thom, S..  2019.  Dominance as a New Trusted Computing Primitive for the Internet of Things. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1415–1430.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly emerging as one of the dominant computing paradigms of this decade. Applications range from in-home entertainment to large-scale industrial deployments such as controlling assembly lines and monitoring traffic. While IoT devices are in many respects similar to traditional computers, user expectations and deployment scenarios as well as cost and hardware constraints are sufficiently different to create new security challenges as well as new opportunities. This is especially true for large-scale IoT deployments in which a central entity deploys and controls a large number of IoT devices with minimal human interaction. Like traditional computers, IoT devices are subject to attack and compromise. Large IoT deployments consisting of many nearly identical devices are especially attractive targets. At the same time, recovery from root compromise by conventional means becomes costly and slow, even more so if the devices are dispersed over a large geographical area. In the worst case, technicians have to travel to all devices and manually recover them. Data center solutions such as the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) which rely on separate service processors and network connections are not only not supported by existing IoT hardware, but are unlikely to be in the foreseeable future due to the cost constraints of mainstream IoT devices. This paper presents CIDER, a system that can recover IoT devices within a short amount of time, even if attackers have taken root control of every device in a large deployment. The recovery requires minimal manual intervention. After the administrator has identified the compromise and produced an updated firmware image, he/she can instruct CIDER to force the devices to reset and to install the patched firmware on the devices. We demonstrate the universality and practicality of CIDER by implementing it on three popular IoT platforms (HummingBoard Edge, Raspberry Pi Compute Module 3 and Nucleo-L476RG) spanning the range from high to low end. Our evaluation shows that the performance overhead of CIDER is generally negligible.