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Iqbal, H., Ma, J., Mu, Q., Ramaswamy, V., Raymond, G., Vivanco, D., Zuena, J..  2017.  Augmenting Security of Internet-of-Things Using Programmable Network-Centric Approaches: A Position Paper. 2017 26th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–6.

Advances in nanotechnology, large scale computing and communications infrastructure, coupled with recent progress in big data analytics, have enabled linking several billion devices to the Internet. These devices provide unprecedented automation, cognitive capabilities, and situational awareness. This new ecosystem–termed as the Internet-of-Things (IoT)–also provides many entry points into the network through the gadgets that connect to the Internet, making security of IoT systems a complex problem. In this position paper, we argue that in order to build a safer IoT system, we need a radically new approach to security. We propose a new security framework that draws ideas from software defined networks (SDN), and data analytics techniques; this framework provides dynamic policy enforcements on every layer of the protocol stack and can adapt quickly to a diverse set of industry use-cases that IoT deployments cater to. Our proposal does not make any assumptions on the capabilities of the devices - it can work with already deployed as well as new types of devices, while also conforming to a service-centric architecture. Even though our focus is on industrial IoT systems, the ideas presented here are applicable to IoT used in a wide array of applications. The goal of this position paper is to initiate a dialogue among standardization bodies and security experts to help raise awareness about network-centric approaches to IoT security.

Zhou, X., Yao, X., Li, H., Ma, J..  2017.  A bisectional multivariate quadratic equation system for RFID anti-counterfeiting. 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA). :19–23.

This paper proposes a novel scheme for RFID anti-counterfeiting by applying bisectional multivariate quadratic equations (BMQE) system into an RF tag data encryption. In the key generation process, arbitrarily choose two matrix sets (denoted as A and B) and a base Rab such that [AB] = λRABT, and generate 2n BMQ polynomials (denoted as p) over finite field Fq. Therefore, (Fq, p) is taken as a public key and (A, B, λ) as a private key. In the encryption process, the EPC code is hashed into a message digest dm. Then dm is padded to d'm which is a non-zero 2n×2n matrix over Fq. With (A, B, λ) and d'm, Sm is formed as an n-vector over F2. Unlike the existing anti-counterfeit scheme, the one we proposed is based on quantum cryptography, thus it is robust enough to resist the existing attacks and has high security.

Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Song, H., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2019.  DAPV: Diagnosing Anomalies in MANETs Routing With Provenance and Verification. IEEE Access. 7:35302–35316.
Routing security plays an important role in the mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing mechanism of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Unlike most existing solutions that prevent the specific problems, our approach tends to detect the misbehavior and identify the anomalous nodes in MANETs automatically. The existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them cannot answer the absence of an event. Besides, without considering the privacy of the nodes, these methods depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present a system called DAPV that can find single or collaborative malicious nodes and the paralyzed nodes which behave abnormally. DAPV can detect both direct and indirect attacks launched during the routing phase. To detect malicious or abnormal nodes, DAPV relies on two main techniques. First, the provenance tracking enables the hosts to deduce the expected log information of the peers with the known log entries. Second, the privacy-preserving verification uses Merkle Hash Tree to verify the logs without revealing any privacy of the nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by applying DAPV to three scenarios: 1) detecting injected malicious intermediated routers which commit active and passive attacks in MANETs; 2) resisting the collaborative black-hole attack of the AODV protocol, and; 3) detecting paralyzed routers in university campus networks. Our experimental results show that our approach can detect the malicious and paralyzed nodes, and the overhead of DAPV is moderate.
Sun, C., Xi, N., Ma, J..  2017.  Enforcing Generalized Refinement-Based Noninterference for Secure Interface Composition. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:586–595.

Information flow security has been considered as a critical requirement on complicated component-based software. The recent efforts on the compositional information flow analyses were limited on the expressiveness of security lattice and the efficiency of compositional enforcement. Extending these approaches to support more general security lattices is usually nontrivial because the compositionality of information flow security properties should be properly treated. In this work, we present a new extension of interface automaton. On this interface structure, we propose two refinement-based security properties, adaptable to any finite security lattice. For each property, we present and prove the security condition that ensures the property to be preserved under composition. Furthermore, we implement the refinement algorithms and the security condition decision procedure. We demonstrate the usability and efficiency of our approach with in-depth case studies. The evaluation results show that our compositional enforcement can effectively reduce the verification cost compared with global verification on composite system.

Zhao, Z., Lu, W., Ma, J., Li, S., Zhou, L..  2018.  Fast Unloading Transient Recovery of Buck Converters Using Series-Inductor Auxiliary Circuit Based Sequence Switching Control. 2018 IEEE International Power Electronics and Application Conference and Exposition (PEAC). :1-5.

This paper presents a sequence switching control (SSC) scheme for buck converters with a series-inductor auxiliary circuit, aiming at improving the load transient response. During an unloading transient, the series inductor is controlled as a small equivalent inductance so as to achieve a fast transient regulation. While in the steady state, the series inductor behaves as a large inductance to reduce the output current ripple. Furthermore, on the basis of the proposed variable inductance circuit, a SSC control scheme is proposed and implemented in a digital form. With the proposed control scheme the unloading transient event is divided into n+1 sub-periods, and in each sub-period, the capacitor-charge balance principle is used to determine the switching time sequence. Furthermore, its feasibility is validated in experiment with a 12V-3.3V low-voltage high-current synchronous buck converter. Experimental results demonstrate that the voltage overshoot of the proposed SSC scheme has improved more than 74% compared to that of the time-optimal control (TOC) scheme.

Sun, J., Ma, J., Quan, J., Zhu, X., I, C..  2019.  A Fuzzy String Matching Scheme Resistant to Statistical Attack. 2019 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :396–402.
The fuzzy query scheme based on vector index uses Bloom filter to construct vector index for key words. Then the statistical attack based on the deviation of frequency distribution of the vector index brings out the sensitive information disclosure. Using the noise vector, a fuzzy query scheme resistant to the statistical attack serving for encrypted database, i.e. S-BF, is introduced. With the noise vector to clear up the deviation of frequency distribution of vector index, the statistical attacks to the vector index are resolved. Demonstrated by lab experiment, S-BF scheme can achieve the secure fuzzy query with the powerful privation protection capability for encrypted cloud database without the loss of fuzzy query efficiency.
Zhang, Z., Li, Z., Xia, C., Cui, J., Ma, J..  2018.  H-Securebox: A Hardened Memory Data Protection Framework on ARM Devices. 2018 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :325–332.

ARM devices (mobile phone, IoT devices) are getting more popular in our daily life due to the low power consumption and cost. These devices carry a huge number of user's private information, which attracts attackers' attention and increase the security risk. The operating systems (e.g., Android, Linux) works out many memory data protection strategies on user's private information. However, the monolithic OS may contain security vulnerabilities that are exploited by the attacker to get root or even kernel privilege. Once the kernel privilege is obtained by the attacker, all data protection strategies will be gone and user's private information can be taken away. In this paper, we propose a hardened memory data protection framework called H-Securebox to defeat kernel-level memory data stolen attacks. H-Securebox leverages ARM hardware virtualization technique to protect the data on the memory with hypervisor privilege. We designed three types H-Securebox for programing developers to use. Although the attacker may have kernel privilege, she can not touch private data inside H-Securebox, since hypervisor privilege is higher than kernel privilege. With the implementation of H-Securebox system assisting by a tiny hypervisor on Raspberry Pi2 development board, we measure the performance overhead of our system and do the security evaluations. The results positively show that the overhead is negligible and the malicious application with root or kernel privilege can not access the private data protected by our system.

Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2018.  Log-based Anomalies Detection of MANETs Routing with Reasoning and Verification. 2018 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). :240–246.

Routing security plays an important role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing procedure of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them have not considered the privacy of the nodes during the anomalies detection, which depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present an approach called LAD which uses the raw logs of routers to construct control a flow graph and find the existing communication rules in MANETs. With the reasoning rules, LAD can detect both active and passive attacks launched during the routing phase. LAD can also protect the privacy of the nodes in the verification phase with the specific Merkle hash tree. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, LAD can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show that our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we deploy our experiment in NS3 as well as the practical router environment. LAD can improve the accuracy rate from 2.28% to 29.22%. The results show that LAD performs limited time and memory usages, high detection and low false positives.

Ma, J., Zhang, T., Dong, M..  2014.  A Novel ECG Data Compression Method Using Adaptive Fourier Decomposition with Security Guarantee in e-Health Applications. Biomedical and Health Informatics, IEEE Journal of. PP:1-1.

This paper presents a novel electrocardiogram (ECG) compression method for e-health applications by adapting an adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) algorithm hybridized with a symbol substitution (SS) technique. The compression consists of two stages: first stage AFD executes efficient lossy compression with high fidelity; second stage SS performs lossless compression enhancement and built-in data encryption, which is pivotal for e-health. Validated with 48 ECG records from MIT-BIH arrhythmia benchmark database, the proposed method achieves averaged compression ratio (CR) of 17.6-44.5 and percentage root mean square difference (PRD) of 0.8-2.0% with a highly linear and robust PRD-CR relationship, pushing forward the compression performance to an unexploited region. As such, this paper provides an attractive candidate of ECG compression method for pervasive e-health applications.

Yao, X., Zhou, X., Ma, J..  2015.  Object event visibility for anti-counterfeiting in RFID-enabled product supply chains. 2015 Science and Information Conference (SAI). :141–150.

RFID-enabled product supply chain visibility is usually implemented by building up a view of the product history of its activities starting from manufacturing or even earlier with a dynamically updated e-pedigree for track-and-trace, which is examined and authenticated at each node of the supply chain for data consistence with the pre-defined one. However, while effectively reducing the risk of fakes, this visibility can't guarantee that the product is authentic without taking further security measures. To the best of our knowledge, this requires deeper understandings on associations of object events with the counterfeiting activities, which is unfortunately left blank. In this paper, the taxonomy of counterfeiting possibilities is initially developed and analyzed, the structure of EPC-based events is then re-examined, and an object-centric coding mechanism is proposed to construct the object-based event “pedigree” for such event exception detection and inference. On this basis, the system architecture framework to achieve the objectivity of object event visibility for anti-counterfeiting is presented, which is also applicable to other aspects of supply chain management.

Li, T., Ma, J., Sun, C., Wei, D., Xi, N..  2017.  PVad: Privacy-Preserving Verification for Secure Routing in Ad Hoc Networks. 2017 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :5–10.

Routing security has a great importance to the security of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). There are various kinds of attacks when establishing routing path between source and destination. The adversaries attempt to deceive the source node and get the privilege of data transmission. Then they try to launch the malicious behaviors such as passive or active attacks. Due to the characteristics of the MANETs, e.g. dynamic topology, open medium, distributed cooperation, and constrained capability, it is difficult to verify the behavior of nodes and detect malicious nodes without revealing any privacy. In this paper, we present PVad, an approach conducting privacy-preserving verification in the routing discovery phase of MANETs. PVad tries to find the existing communication rules by association rules instead of making the rules. PVad consists of two phases, a reasoning phase deducing the expected log data of the peers, and a verification phase using Merkle Hash Tree to verify the correctness of derived information without revealing any privacy of nodes on expected routing paths. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, PVad can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we conduct our experiments in NS3 as well as the real router environment, and we improved the detection accuracy by 4% on average compared to our former work.

Suh, Y. K., Ma, J..  2017.  SuperMan: A Novel System for Storing and Retrieving Scientific-Simulation Provenance for Efficient Job Executions on Computing Clusters. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W). :283–288.

Compute-intensive simulations typically charge substantial workloads on an online simulation platform backed by limited computing clusters and storage resources. Some (or most) of the simulations initiated by users may accompany input parameters/files that have been already provided by other (or same) users in the past. Unfortunately, these duplicate simulations may aggravate the performance of the platform by drastic consumption of the limited resources shared by a number of users on the platform. To minimize or avoid conducting repeated simulations, we present a novel system, called SUPERMAN (SimUlation ProvEnance Recycling MANager) that can record simulation provenances and recycle the results of past simulations. This system presents a great opportunity to not only reutilize existing results but also perform various analytics helpful for those who are not familiar with the platform. The system also offers interoperability across other systems by collecting the provenances in a standardized format. In our simulated experiments we found that over half of past computing jobs could be answered without actual executions by our system.

Ma, J., Feng, Z., Li, Y., Sun, X..  2020.  Topologically Protected Acoustic Wave Amplification in an Optomechanical Array. 2020 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1–2.
By exploiting the simultaneous particle-conserving and particle-nonconserving phonon-photon interactions in an optomechanical array, we find a topologically protected edge state for phonons that can be parametrically amplified when all the bulk states remain stable.