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Zuin, Gianlucca, Chaimowicz, Luiz, Veloso, Adriano.  2018.  Learning Transferable Features For Open-Domain Question Answering. 2018 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.

Corpora used to learn open-domain Question-Answering (QA) models are typically collected from a wide variety of topics or domains. Since QA requires understanding natural language, open-domain QA models generally need very large training corpora. A simple way to alleviate data demand is to restrict the domain covered by the QA model, leading thus to domain-specific QA models. While learning improved QA models for a specific domain is still challenging due to the lack of sufficient training data in the topic of interest, additional training data can be obtained from related topic domains. Thus, instead of learning a single open-domain QA model, we investigate domain adaptation approaches in order to create multiple improved domain-specific QA models. We demonstrate that this can be achieved by stratifying the source dataset, without the need of searching for complementary data unlike many other domain adaptation approaches. We propose a deep architecture that jointly exploits convolutional and recurrent networks for learning domain-specific features while transferring domain-shared features. That is, we use transferable features to enable model adaptation from multiple source domains. We consider different transference approaches designed to learn span-level and sentence-level QA models. We found that domain-adaptation greatly improves sentence-level QA performance, and span-level QA benefits from sentence information. Finally, we also show that a simple clustering algorithm may be employed when the topic domains are unknown and the resulting loss in accuracy is negligible.