Visible to the public Biblio

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Kannan, S., Karimi, N., Karri, R., Sinanoglu, O..  2014.  Detection, diagnosis, and repair of faults in memristor-based memories. VLSI Test Symposium (VTS), 2014 IEEE 32nd. :1-6.

Memristors are an attractive option for use in future memory architectures due to their non-volatility, high density and low power operation. Notwithstanding these advantages, memristors and memristor-based memories are prone to high defect densities due to the non-deterministic nature of nanoscale fabrication. The typical approach to fault detection and diagnosis in memories entails testing one memory cell at a time. This is time consuming and does not scale for the dense, memristor-based memories. In this paper, we integrate solutions for detecting and locating faults in memristors, and ensure post-silicon recovery from memristor failures. We propose a hybrid diagnosis scheme that exploits sneak-paths inherent in crossbar memories, and uses March testing to test and diagnose multiple memory cells simultaneously, thereby reducing test time. We also provide a repair mechanism that prevents faults in the memory from being activated. The proposed schemes enable and leverage sneak paths during fault detection and diagnosis modes, while still maintaining a sneak-path free crossbar during normal operation. The proposed hybrid scheme reduces fault detection and diagnosis time by ~44%, compared to traditional March tests, and repairs the faulty cell with minimal overhead.

Ramdas, A., Saeed, S.M., Sinanoglu, O..  2014.  Slack removal for enhanced reliability and trust. Design Technology of Integrated Systems In Nanoscale Era (DTIS), 2014 9th IEEE International Conference On. :1-4.

Timing slacks possibly lead to reliability issues and/or security vulnerabilities, as they may hide small delay defects and malicious circuitries injected during fabrication, namely, hardware Trojans. While possibly harmless immediately after production, small delay defects may trigger reliability problems as the part is being used in field, presenting a significant threat for mission-critical applications. Hardware Trojans remain dormant while the part is tested and validated, but then get activated to launch an attack when the chip is deployed in security-critical applications. In this paper, we take a deeper look into these problems and their underlying reasons, and propose a design technique to maximize the detection of small delay defects as well as the hardware Trojans. The proposed technique eliminates all slacks by judiciously inserting delay units in a small set of locations in the circuit, thereby rendering a simple set of transition fault patterns quite effective in catching parts with small delay defects or Trojans. Experimental results also justify the efficacy of the proposed technique in improving the quality of test while retaining the pattern count and care bit density intact.

Yasin, M., Sinanoglu, O..  2017.  Evolution of logic locking. 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :1–6.
The globalization of integrated circuit (IC) supply chain and the emergence of threats, such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, reverse engineering, and hardware Trojans, have forced semiconductor companies to revisit the trust in the supply chain. Logic locking is emerging as a popular and effective countermeasure against these threats. Over the years, multiple logic techniques have been developed. Moreover, a number of attacks have been proposed that expose the security vulnerabilities of these techniques. This paper highlights the key developments in the logic locking research and presents a comprehensive literature review of logic locking.
Yasin, M., Mazumdar, B., Rajendran, J. J. V., Sinanoglu, O..  2017.  TTLock: Tenacious and traceless logic locking. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :166–166.
Logic locking is an intellectual property (IP) protection technique that prevents IP piracy, reverse engineering and overbuilding attacks by the untrusted foundry or endusers. Existing logic locking techniques are all vulnerable to various attacks, such as sensitization, key-pruning and signal skew analysis enabled removal attacks. In this paper, we propose TTLock that provably withstands all known attacks. TTLock protects a designer-specified number of input patterns, enabling a controlled and provably-secure trade-off between key-pruning attack resilience and removal attack resilience. All the key-bits converge on a single signal, creating maximal interference and thus resisting sensitization attacks. And, obfuscation is performed by modifying the design IP in a secret and traceless way, thwarting signal skew analysis and the removal attack it enables. Experimental results confirm our theoretical expectations that the computational complexity of attacks launched on TTLock grows exponentially with increasing key-size, while the area, power, and delay overhead increases only linearly.
Zaman, M., Sengupta, A., Liu, D., Sinanoglu, O., Makris, Y., Rajendran, J. J. V..  2018.  Towards provably-secure performance locking. 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1592–1597.
Locking the functionality of an integrated circuit (IC) thwarts attacks such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, hardware Trojans, overbuilding, and counterfeiting. Although functional locking has been extensively investigated, locking the performance of an IC has been little explored. In this paper, we develop provably-secure performance locking, where only on applying the correct key the IC shows superior performance; for an incorrect key, the performance of the IC degrades significantly. This leads to a new business model, where the companies can design a single IC capable of different performances for different users. We develop mathematical definitions of security and theoretically, and experimentally prove the security against the state-of-the-art-attacks. We implemented performance locking on a FabScalar microprocessor, achieving a degradation in instructions per clock cycle (IPC) of up to 77% on applying an incorrect key, with an overhead of 0.6%, 0.2%, and 0% for area, power, and delay, respectively.
Sengupta, A., Ashraf, M., Nabeel, M., Sinanoglu, O..  2018.  Customized Locking of IP Blocks on a Multi-Million-Gate SoC. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–7.
Reliance on off-site untrusted fabrication facilities has given rise to several threats such as intellectual property (IP) piracy, overbuilding and hardware Trojans. Logic locking is a promising defense technique against such malicious activities that is effected at the silicon layer. Over the past decade, several logic locking defenses and attacks have been presented, thereby, enhancing the state-of-the-art. Nevertheless, there has been little research aiming to demonstrate the applicability of logic locking with large-scale multi-million-gate industrial designs consisting of multiple IP blocks with different security requirements. In this work, we take on this challenge to successfully lock a multi-million-gate system-on-chip (SoC) provided by DARPA by taking it all the way to GDSII layout. We analyze how specific features, constraints, and security requirements of an IP block can be leveraged to lock its functionality in the most appropriate way. We show that the blocks of an SoC can be locked in a customized manner at 0.5%, 15.3%, and 1.5% chip-level overhead in power, performance, and area, respectively.
Li, H., Patnaik, S., Sengupta, A., Yang, H., Knechtel, J., Yu, B., Young, E. F. Y., Sinanoglu, O..  2019.  Attacking Split Manufacturing from a Deep Learning Perspective. 2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1–6.
The notion of integrated circuit split manufacturing which delegates the front-end-of-line (FEOL) and back-end-of-line (BEOL) parts to different foundries, is to prevent overproduction, piracy of the intellectual property (IP), or targeted insertion of hardware Trojans by adversaries in the FEOL facility. In this work, we challenge the security promise of split manufacturing by formulating various layout-level placement and routing hints as vector- and image-based features. We construct a sophisticated deep neural network which can infer the missing BEOL connections with high accuracy. Compared with the publicly available network-flow attack [1], for the same set of ISCAS-85benchmarks, we achieve 1.21× accuracy when splitting on M1 and 1.12× accuracy when splitting on M3 with less than 1% running time.