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Kannan, S., Karimi, N., Karri, R., Sinanoglu, O..  2014.  Detection, diagnosis, and repair of faults in memristor-based memories. VLSI Test Symposium (VTS), 2014 IEEE 32nd. :1-6.

Memristors are an attractive option for use in future memory architectures due to their non-volatility, high density and low power operation. Notwithstanding these advantages, memristors and memristor-based memories are prone to high defect densities due to the non-deterministic nature of nanoscale fabrication. The typical approach to fault detection and diagnosis in memories entails testing one memory cell at a time. This is time consuming and does not scale for the dense, memristor-based memories. In this paper, we integrate solutions for detecting and locating faults in memristors, and ensure post-silicon recovery from memristor failures. We propose a hybrid diagnosis scheme that exploits sneak-paths inherent in crossbar memories, and uses March testing to test and diagnose multiple memory cells simultaneously, thereby reducing test time. We also provide a repair mechanism that prevents faults in the memory from being activated. The proposed schemes enable and leverage sneak paths during fault detection and diagnosis modes, while still maintaining a sneak-path free crossbar during normal operation. The proposed hybrid scheme reduces fault detection and diagnosis time by ~44%, compared to traditional March tests, and repairs the faulty cell with minimal overhead.