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M. Moradi, F. Qian, Q. Xu, Z. M. Mao, D. Bethea, M. K. Reiter.  2015.  "Caesar: high-speed and memory-efficient forwarding engine for future internet architecture". 2015 ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS). :171-182.

In response to the critical challenges of the current Internet architecture and its protocols, a set of so-called clean slate designs has been proposed. Common among them is an addressing scheme that separates location and identity with self-certifying, flat and non-aggregatable address components. Each component is long, reaching a few kilobits, and would consume an amount of fast memory in data plane devices (e.g., routers) that is far beyond existing capacities. To address this challenge, we present Caesar, a high-speed and length-agnostic forwarding engine for future border routers, performing most of the lookups within three fast memory accesses. To compress forwarding states, Caesar constructs scalable and reliable Bloom filters in Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM). To guarantee correctness, Caesar detects false positives at high speed and develops a blacklisting approach to handling them. In addition, we optimize our design by introducing a hashing scheme that reduces the number of hash computations from k to log(k) per lookup based on hash coding theory. We handle routing updates while keeping filters highly utilized in address removals. We perform extensive analysis and simulations using real traffic and routing traces to demonstrate the benefits of our design. Our evaluation shows that Caesar is more energy-efficient and less expensive (in terms of total cost) compared to optimized IPv6 TCAM-based solutions by up to 67% and 43% respectively. In addition, the total cost of our design is approximately the same for various address lengths.

V. Heorhiadi, M. K. Reiter, V. Sekar.  2016.  Simplifying software-defined network optimization using SOL. 13th USENIX Symposium on Networked System Design and Implementation.

Realizing the benefits of SDN for many network management applications (e.g., traffic engineering, service chaining, topology reconfiguration) involves addressing complex optimizations that are central to these problems. Unfortunately, such optimization problems require (a) significant manual effort and expertise to express and (b) non-trivial computation and/or carefully crafted heuristics to solve. Our goal is to simplify the deployment of SDN applications using general high-level abstractions for capturing optimization requirements from which we can efficiently generate optimal solutions. To this end, we present SOL, a framework that demonstrates that it is possible to simultaneously achieve generality and efficiency. The insight underlying SOL is that many SDN applications can be recast within a unifying path-based optimization abstraction. Using this, SOL can efficiently generate near-optimal solutions and device configurations to implement them. We show that SOL provides comparable or better scalability than custom optimization solutions for diverse applications, allows a balancing of optimality and route churn per reconfiguration, and interfaces with modern SDN controllers.


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