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Conference Paper
Abbas, Waseem, Perelman, Lina Sela, Amin, Saurabh, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2015.  An Efficient Approach to Fault Identification in Urban Water Networks Using Multi-Level Sensing. Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Conference on Embedded Systems for Energy-Efficient Built Environments. :147–156.

The objective of this work is to develop an efficient and practical sensor placement method for the failure detection and localization in water networks. We formulate the problem as the minimum test cover problem (MTC) with the objective of selecting the minimum number of sensors required to uniquely identify and localize pipe failure events. First, we summarize a single-level sensing model and discuss an efficient fast greedy approach for solving the MTC problem. Simulation results on benchmark test networks demonstrate the efficacy of the fast greedy algorithm. Second, we develop a multi-level sensing model that captures additional physical features of the disturbance event, such as the time lapsed between the occurrence of disturbance and its detection by the sensor. Our sensor placement approach using MTC extends to the multi-level sensing model and an improved identification performance is obtained via reduced number of sensors (in comparison to single-level sensing model). In particular, we investigate the bi-level sensing model to illustrate the efficacy of employing multi-level sensors for the identification of failure events. Finally, we suggest extensions of our approach for the deployment of heterogeneous sensors in water networks by exploring the trade-off between cost and performance (measured in terms of the identification score of pipe/link failures).

Abbas, Waseem, Perelman, Lina Sela, Amin, Saurabh, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2017.  Resilient Sensor Placement for Fault Localization in Water Distribution Networks. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. :165–174.

In this paper, we study the sensor placement problem in urban water networks that maximizes the localization of pipe failures given that some sensors give incorrect outputs. False output of a sensor might be the result of degradation in sensor's hardware, software fault, or might be due to a cyber attack on the sensor. Incorrect outputs from such sensors can have any possible values which could lead to an inaccurate localization of a failure event. We formulate the optimal sensor placement problem with erroneous sensors as a set multicover problem, which is NP-hard, and then discuss a polynomial time heuristic to obtain efficient solutions. In this direction, we first examine the physical model of the disturbance propagating in the network as a result of a failure event, and outline the multi-level sensing model that captures several event features. Second, using a combinatorial approach, we solve the problem of sensor placement that maximizes the localization of pipe failures by selecting m sensors out of which at most e give incorrect outputs. We propose various localization performance metrics, and numerically evaluate our approach on a benchmark and a real water distribution network. Finally, using computational experiments, we study relationships between design parameters such as the total number of sensors, the number of sensors with errors, and extracted signal features.