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Tembe, Rucha, Zielinska, Olga, Liu, Yuqi, Hong, Kyung Wha, Murphy-Hill, Emerson, Mayhorn, Chris, Ge, Xi.  2014.  Phishing in International Waters: Exploring Cross-national Differences in Phishing Conceptualizations Between Chinese, Indian and American Samples. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :8:1–8:7.

One hundred-sixty four participants from the United States, India and China completed a survey designed to assess past phishing experiences and whether they engaged in certain online safety practices (e.g., reading a privacy policy). The study investigated participants' reported agreement regarding the characteristics of phishing attacks, types of media where phishing occurs and the consequences of phishing. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that there were significant differences in agreement regarding phishing characteristics, phishing consequences and types of media where phishing occurs for these three nationalities. Chronological age and education did not influence the agreement ratings; therefore, the samples were demographically equivalent with regards to these variables. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the categorical variables and nationality data. Results based on self-report data indicated that (1) Indians were more likely to be phished than Americans, (2) Americans took protective actions more frequently than Indians by destroying old documents, and (3) Americans were more likely to notice the "padlock" security icon than either Indian or Chinese respondents. The potential implications of these results are discussed in terms of designing culturally sensitive anti-phishing solutions.