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Kurilova, Darya, Omar, Cyrus, Nistor, Ligia, Chung, Benjamin, Potanin, Alex, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2014.  Type-specific Languages to Fight Injection Attacks. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :18:1–18:2.

Injection vulnerabilities have topped rankings of the most critical web application vulnerabilities for several years [1, 2]. They can occur anywhere where user input may be erroneously executed as code. The injected input is typically aimed at gaining unauthorized access to the system or to private information within it, corrupting the system's data, or disturbing system availability. Injection vulnerabilities are tedious and difficult to prevent.

Omar, Cyrus, Chung, Benjamin, Kurilova, Darya, Potanin, Alex, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2013.  Type-directed, whitespace-delimited parsing for embedded DSLs. Proceedings of the First Workshop on the Globalization of Domain Specific Languages. :8–11.
Domain-specific languages improve ease-of-use, expressiveness and verifiability, but defining and using different DSLs within a single application remains difficult. We introduce an approach for embedded DSLs where 1) whitespace delimits DSL-governed blocks, and 2) the parsing and type checking phases occur in tandem so that the expected type of the block determines which domain-specific parser governs that block. We argue that this approach occupies a sweet spot, providing high expressiveness and ease-of-use while maintaining safe composability. We introduce the design, provide examples and describe an ongoing implementation of this strategy in the Wyvern programming language. We also discuss how a more conventional keyword-directed strategy for parsing of DSLs can arise as a special case of this type-directed strategy.
Omar, Cyrus, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2016.  Programmable Semantic Fragments: The Design and Implementation of Typy. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Generative Programming: Concepts and Experiences. :81–92.

This paper introduces typy, a statically typed programming language embedded by reflection into Python. typy features a fragmentary semantics, i.e. it delegates semantic control over each term, drawn from Python's fixed concrete and abstract syntax, to some contextually relevant user-defined semantic fragment. The delegated fragment programmatically 1) typechecks the term (following a bidirectional protocol); and 2) assigns dynamic meaning to the term by computing a translation to Python. We argue that this design is expressive with examples of fragments that express the static and dynamic semantics of 1) functional records; 2) labeled sums (with nested pattern matching a la ML); 3) a variation on JavaScript's prototypal object system; and 4) typed foreign interfaces to Python and OpenCL. These semantic structures are, or would need to be, defined primitively in conventionally structured languages. We further argue that this design is compositionally well-behaved. It avoids the expression problem and the problems of grammar composition because the syntax is fixed. Moreover, programs are semantically stable under fragment composition (i.e. defining a new fragment will not change the meaning of existing program components.)

Omar, Cyrus, Wang, Chenglong, Aldrich, Jonathan.  2015.  Composable and Hygienic Typed Syntax Macros. Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :1986–1991.

Syntax extension mechanisms are powerful, but reasoning about syntax extensions can be difficult. Recent work on type-specific languages (TSLs) addressed reasoning about composition, hygiene and typing for extensions introducing new literal forms. We supplement TSLs with typed syntax macros (TSMs), which, unlike TSLs, are explicitly invoked to give meaning to delimited segments of arbitrary syntax. To maintain a typing discipline, we describe two avors of term-level TSMs: synthetic TSMs specify the type of term that they generate, while analytic TSMs can generate terms of arbitrary type, but can only be used in positions where the type is otherwise known. At the level of types, we describe a third avor of TSM that generates a type of a specified kind along with its TSL and show interesting use cases where the two mechanisms operate in concert.