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Venkataramanan, Venkatesh, Hahn, Adam, Srivastava, Anurag.  2020.  CP-SAM: Cyber-Physical Security Assessment Metric for Monitoring Microgrid Resiliency. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 11:1055–1065.
Trustworthy and secure operation of the cyber-power system calls for resilience against malicious and accidental failures. The objective of a resilient system is to withstand and recover operation of the system to supply critical loads despite multiple contingencies in the system. To take timely actions, we need to continuously measure the cyberphysical security of the system. We propose a cyber-physical security assessment metric (CP-SAM) based on quantitative factors affecting resiliency and utilizing concepts from graph theoretic analysis, probabilistic model of availability, attack graph metrics, and vulnerabilities across different layers of the microgrid system. These factors are integrated into a single metric using a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique, Choquet Integral to compute CP-SAM. The developed metric will be valuable for i) monitoring the microgrid resiliency considering a holistic cyber-physical model; and ii) enable better decision-making to select best possible mitigation strategies towards resilient microgrid system. Developed CP-SAM can be extended for active distribution system and has been validated in a real-world power-grid test-bed to monitor the microgrid resiliency.
Venkataramanan, Venkatesh, Srivastava, Anurag K., Hahn, Adam, Zonouz, Saman.  2019.  Measuring and Enhancing Microgrid Resiliency Against Cyber Threats. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 55:6303—6312.
Recent cyber attacks on the power grid have been of increasing complexity and sophistication. In order to understand the impact of cyber-attacks on the power system resiliency, it is important to consider an holistic cyber-physical system specially with increasing industrial automation. In this study, device-level resilience properties of the various controllers and their impact on the microgrid resiliency is studied. In addition, a cyber-physical resiliency metric considering vulnerabilities, system model, and device-level properties is proposed. Resiliency is defined as the system ability to provide energy to critical loads even in extreme contingencies and depends on system ability to withstand, predict, and recover. A use case is presented inspired by the recent Ukraine cyber-attack. A use case has been presented to demonstrate application of the developed cyber-physical resiliency metric to enhance situational awareness of the operator, and enable better proactive or remedial control actions to improve resiliency.