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Ebrahimabadi, Mohammad, Younis, Mohamed, Lalouani, Wassila, Karimi, Naghmeh.  2022.  An Attack Resilient PUF-based Authentication Mechanism for Distributed Systems. 2022 35th International Conference on VLSI Design and 2022 21st International Conference on Embedded Systems (VLSID). :108–113.
In most PUF-based authentication schemes, a central server is usually engaged to verify the response of the device’s PUF to challenge bit-streams. However, the server availability may be intermittent in practice. To tackle such an issue, this paper proposes a new protocol for supporting distributed authentication while avoiding vulnerability to information leakage where CRPs could be retrieved from hacked devices and collectively used to model the PUF. The main idea is to provision for scrambling the challenge bit-stream in a way that is dependent on the verifier. The scrambling pattern varies per authentication round for each device and independently across devices. In essence, the scrambling function becomes node- and packetspecific and the response received by two verifiers of one device for the same challenge bit-stream could vary. Thus, neither the scrambling function can be reverted, nor the PUF can be modeled even by a collusive set of malicious nodes. The validation results using data of an FPGA-based implementation demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in thwarting PUF modeling attacks by collusive actors. We also discuss the approach resiliency against impersonation, Sybil, and reverse engineering attacks.
Ebrahimabadi, Mohammad, Younis, Mohamed, Lalouani, Wassila, Karimi, Naghmeh.  2021.  A Novel Modeling-Attack Resilient Arbiter-PUF Design. 2021 34th International Conference on VLSI Design and 2021 20th International Conference on Embedded Systems (VLSID). :123–128.
Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been considered as promising lightweight primitives for random number generation and device authentication. Thanks to the imperfections occurring during the fabrication process of integrated circuits, each PUF generates a unique signature which can be used for chip identification. Although supposed to be unclonable, PUFs have been shown to be vulnerable to modeling attacks where a set of collected challenge response pairs are used for training a machine learning model to predict the PUF response to unseen challenges. Challenge obfuscation has been proposed to tackle the modeling attacks in recent years. However, knowing the obfuscation algorithm can help the adversary to model the PUF. This paper proposes a modeling-resilient arbiter-PUF architecture that benefits from the randomness provided by PUFs in concealing the obfuscation scheme. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed structure in countering PUF modeling attacks.
Lalouani, Wassila, Younis, Mohamed.  2020.  Machine Learning Enabled Secure Collection of Phasor Data in Smart Power Grid Networks. 2020 16th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :546–553.
In a smart power grid, phasor measurement devices provide critical status updates in order to enable stabilization of the grid against fluctuations in power demands and component failures. Particularly the trend is to employ a large number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) that are inter-networked through wireless links. We tackle the vulnerability of such a wireless PMU network to message replay and false data injection (FDI) attacks. We propose a novel approach for avoiding explicit data transmission through PMU measurements prediction. Our methodology is based on applying advanced machine learning techniques to forecast what values will be reported and associate a level of confidence in such prediction. Instead of sending the actual measurements, the PMU sends the difference between actual and predicted values along with the confidence level. By applying the same technique at the grid control or data aggregation unit, our approach implicitly makes such a unit aware of the actual measurements and enables authentication of the source of the transmission. Our approach is data-driven and varies over time; thus it increases the PMU network resilience against message replay and FDI attempts since the adversary's messages will violate the data prediction protocol. The effectiveness of approach is validated using datasets for the IEEE 14 and IEEE 39 bus systems and through security analysis.