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K. Cavalleri, B. Brinkman.  2015.  "Water treatment in context: resources and African religion". 2015 Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium. :19-23.

Drinking water availability is a crucial problem that must be addressed in order to improve the quality of life of individuals living developing nations. Improving water supply availability is important for public health, as it is the third highest risk factor for poor health in developing nations with high mortality rates. This project researched drinking water filtration for areas of Sub-Saharan Africa near existing bodies of water, where the populations are completely reliant on collecting from surface water sources: the most contaminated water source type. Water filtration methods that can be completely created by the consumer would alleviate aid organization dependence in developing nations, put the consumers in control, and improve public health. Filtration processes pass water through a medium that will catch contaminants through physical entrapment or absorption and thus yield a cleaner effluent. When exploring different materials for filtration, removal of contaminants and hydraulic conductivity are the two most important components. Not only does the method have to treat the water, but also it has to do so in a timeframe that is quick enough to produce potable water at a rate that keeps up with everyday needs. Cement is easily accessible in Sub- Saharan regions. Most concrete mixtures are not meant to be pervious, as it is a construction material used for its compressive strength, however, reduced water content in a cement mixture gives it higher permeability. Several different concrete samples of varying thicknesses and water concentrations were created. Bacterial count tests were performed on both pre-filtered and filtered water samples. Concrete filtration does remove bacteria from drinking water, however, the method can still be improved upon.