Visible to the public Biblio

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Etigowni, Sriharsha, Tian, Dave(Jing), Hernandez, Grant, Zonouz, Saman, Butler, Kevin.  2016.  CPAC: Securing Critical Infrastructure with Cyber-physical Access Control. Proceedings of the 32Nd Annual Conference on Computer Security Applications. :139–152.

Critical infrastructure such as the power grid has become increasingly complex. The addition of computing elements to traditional physical components increases complexity and hampers insight into how elements in the system interact with each other. The result is an infrastructure where operational mistakes, some of which cannot be distinguished from attacks, are more difficult to prevent and have greater potential impact, such as leaking sensitive information to the operator or attacker. In this paper, we present CPAC, a cyber-physical access control solution to manage complexity and mitigate threats in cyber-physical environments, with a focus on the electrical smart grid. CPAC uses information flow analysis based on mathematical models of the physical grid to generate policies enforced through verifiable logic. At the device side, CPAC combines symbolic execution with lightweight dynamic execution monitoring to allow non-intrusive taint analysis on programmable logic controllers in realtime. These components work together to provide a realtime view of all system elements, and allow for more robust and finer-grained protections than any previous solution to securing the grid. We implement a prototype of CPAC using Bachmann PLCs and evaluate several real-world incidents that demonstrate its scalability and effectiveness. The policy checking for a nation-wide grid is less than 150 ms, faster than existing solutions. We additionally show that CPAC can analyze potential component failures for arbitrary component failures, far beyond the capabilities of currently deployed systems. CPAC thus provides a solution to secure the modern smart grid from operator mistakes or insider attacks, maintain operational privacy, and support N - x contingencies.

Tian, Dave(Jing), Bates, Adam, Butler, Kevin R.B., Rangaswami, Raju.  2016.  ProvUSB: Block-level Provenance-Based Data Protection for USB Storage Devices. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :242–253.

Defenders of enterprise networks have a critical need to quickly identify the root causes of malware and data leakage. Increasingly, USB storage devices are the media of choice for data exfiltration, malware propagation, and even cyber-warfare. We observe that a critical aspect of explaining and preventing such attacks is understanding the provenance of data (i.e., the lineage of data from its creation to current state) on USB devices as a means of ensuring their safe usage. Unfortunately, provenance tracking is not offered by even sophisticated modern devices. This work presents ProvUSB, an architecture for fine-grained provenance collection and tracking on smart USB devices. ProvUSB maintains data provenance by recording reads and writes at the block layer and reliably identifying hosts editing those blocks through attestation over the USB channel. Our evaluation finds that ProvUSB imposes a one-time 850 ms overhead during USB enumeration, but approaches nearly-bare-metal runtime performance (90% of throughput) on larger files during normal execution, and less than 0.1% storage overhead for provenance in real-world workloads. ProvUSB thus provides essential new techniques in the defense of computer systems and USB storage devices.

Hernandez, Grant, Fowze, Farhaan, Tian, Dave(Jing), Yavuz, Tuba, Butler, Kevin R.B..  2017.  FirmUSB: Vetting USB Device Firmware Using Domain Informed Symbolic Execution. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :2245–2262.

The USB protocol has become ubiquitous, supporting devices from high-powered computing devices to small embedded devices and control systems. USB's greatest feature, its openness and expandability, is also its weakness, and attacks such as BadUSB exploit the unconstrained functionality afforded to these devices as a vector for compromise. Fundamentally, it is virtually impossible to know whether a USB device is benign or malicious. This work introduces FirmUSB, a USB-specific firmware analysis framework that uses domain knowledge of the USB protocol to examine firmware images and determine the activity that they can produce. Embedded USB devices use microcontrollers that have not been well studied by the binary analysis community, and our work demonstrates how lifters into popular intermediate representations for analysis can be built, as well as the challenges of doing so. We develop targeting algorithms and use domain knowledge to speed up these processes by a factor of 7 compared to unconstrained fully symbolic execution. We also successfully find malicious activity in embedded 8051 firmwares without the use of source code. Finally, we provide insights into the challenges of symbolic analysis on embedded architectures and provide guidance on improving tools to better handle this important class of devices.