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Inoue, Jun, Kiselyov, Oleg, Kameyama, Yukiyoshi.  2016.  Staging Beyond Terms: Prospects and Challenges. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Partial Evaluation and Program Manipulation. :103–108.

Staging is a program generation paradigm with a clean, well-investigated semantics which statically ensures that the generated code is always well-typed and well-scoped. Staging is often used for specializing programs to the known properties or parts of data to improve efficiency, but so far it has been limited to generating terms. This short paper describes our ongoing work on extending staging, with its strong safety guarantees, to generation of non-terms, focusing on ML-style modules. The purpose is to map out the promises and challenges, then to pose a question to solicit the community's expertise in evaluating how essential our extensions are for the purpose of applying staging beyond the realm of terms. We demonstrate our extensions' use in specializing functor applications to eliminate its (currently large) overhead in OCaml. We explain the challenges that those extensions bring in and identify a promising line of attack. Unexpectedly, however, it turns out that we can avoid module generation altogether by representing modules, possibly containing abstract types, as polymorphic records. With the help of first-class modules, module specialization reduces to ordinary term specialization, which can be done with conventional staging. The extent to which this hack generalizes is unclear. Thus we have a question to the community: is there a compelling use case for module generation? With these insights and questions, we offer a starting point for a long-term program in the next stage of staging research.

S
Suzuki, Kenichi, Kiselyov, Oleg, Kameyama, Yukiyoshi.  2016.  Finally, Safely-extensible and Efficient Language-integrated Query. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Partial Evaluation and Program Manipulation. :37–48.

Language-integrated query is an embedding of database queries into a host language to code queries at a higher level than the all-to-common concatenation of strings of SQL fragments. The eventually produced SQL is ensured to be well-formed and well-typed, and hence free from the embarrassing (security) problems. Language-integrated query takes advantage of the host language's functional and modular abstractions to compose and reuse queries and build query libraries. Furthermore, language-integrated query systems like T-LINQ generate efficient SQL, by applying a number of program transformations to the embedded query. Alas, the set of transformation rules is not designed to be extensible. We demonstrate a new technique of integrating database queries into a typed functional programming language, so to write well-typed, composable queries and execute them efficiently on any SQL back-end as well as on an in-memory noSQL store. A distinct feature of our framework is that both the query language as well as the transformation rules needed to generate efficient SQL are safely user-extensible, to account for many variations in the SQL back-ends, as well for domain-specific knowledge. The transformation rules are guaranteed to be type-preserving and hygienic by their very construction. They can be built from separately developed and reusable parts and arbitrarily composed into optimization pipelines. With this technique we have embedded into OCaml a relational query language that supports a very large subset of SQL including grouping and aggregation. Its types cover the complete set of intricate SQL behaviors.