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Ayoade, G., Chandra, S., Khan, L., Hamlen, K., Thuraisingham, B..  2018.  Automated Threat Report Classification over Multi-Source Data. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :236–245.

With an increase in targeted attacks such as advanced persistent threats (APTs), enterprise system defenders require comprehensive frameworks that allow them to collaborate and evaluate their defense systems against such attacks. MITRE has developed a framework which includes a database of different kill-chains, tactics, techniques, and procedures that attackers employ to perform these attacks. In this work, we leverage natural language processing techniques to extract attacker actions from threat report documents generated by different organizations and automatically classify them into standardized tactics and techniques, while providing relevant mitigation advisories for each attack. A naïve method to achieve this is by training a machine learning model to predict labels that associate the reports with relevant categories. In practice, however, sufficient labeled data for model training is not always readily available, so that training and test data come from different sources, resulting in bias. A naïve model would typically underperform in such a situation. We address this major challenge by incorporating an importance weighting scheme called bias correction that efficiently utilizes available labeled data, given threat reports, whose categories are to be automatically predicted. We empirically evaluated our approach on 18,257 real-world threat reports generated between year 2000 and 2018 from various computer security organizations to demonstrate its superiority by comparing its performance with an existing approach.

Thuraisingham, B., Kantarcioglu, M., Hamlen, K., Khan, L., Finin, T., Joshi, A., Oates, T., Bertino, E..  2016.  A Data Driven Approach for the Science of Cyber Security: Challenges and Directions. 2016 IEEE 17th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :1–10.

This paper describes a data driven approach to studying the science of cyber security (SoS). It argues that science is driven by data. It then describes issues and approaches towards the following three aspects: (i) Data Driven Science for Attack Detection and Mitigation, (ii) Foundations for Data Trustworthiness and Policy-based Sharing, and (iii) A Risk-based Approach to Security Metrics. We believe that the three aspects addressed in this paper will form the basis for studying the Science of Cyber Security.

Ayoade, G., Akbar, K. A., Sahoo, P., Gao, Y., Agarwal, A., Jee, K., Khan, L., Singhal, A..  2020.  Evolving Advanced Persistent Threat Detection using Provenance Graph and Metric Learning. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.
Advanced persistent threats (APT) have increased in recent times as a result of the rise in interest by nation-states and sophisticated corporations to obtain high profile information. Typically, APT attacks are more challenging to detect since they leverage zero-day attacks and common benign tools. Furthermore, these attack campaigns are often prolonged to evade detection. We leverage an approach that uses a provenance graph to obtain execution traces of host nodes in order to detect anomalous behavior. By using the provenance graph, we extract features that are then used to train an online adaptive metric learning. Online metric learning is a deep learning method that learns a function to minimize the separation between similar classes and maximizes the separation between dis-similar instances. We compare our approach with baseline models and we show our method outperforms the baseline models by increasing detection accuracy on average by 11.3 % and increases True positive rate (TPR) on average by 18.3 %.
Alnaami, K., Ayoade, G., Siddiqui, A., Ruozzi, N., Khan, L., Thuraisingham, B..  2015.  P2V: Effective Website Fingerprinting Using Vector Space Representations. 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence. :59–66.

Language vector space models (VSMs) have recently proven to be effective across a variety of tasks. In VSMs, each word in a corpus is represented as a real-valued vector. These vectors can be used as features in many applications in machine learning and natural language processing. In this paper, we study the effect of vector space representations in cyber security. In particular, we consider a passive traffic analysis attack (Website Fingerprinting) that threatens users' navigation privacy on the web. By using anonymous communication, Internet users (such as online activists) may wish to hide the destination of web pages they access for different reasons such as avoiding tyrant governments. Traditional website fingerprinting studies collect packets from the users' network and extract features that are used by machine learning techniques to reveal the destination of certain web pages. In this work, we propose the packet to vector (P2V) approach where we model website fingerprinting attack using word vector representations. We show how the suggested model outperforms previous website fingerprinting works.

Islam, M. S., Verma, H., Khan, L., Kantarcioglu, M..  2019.  Secure Real-Time Heterogeneous IoT Data Management System. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :228–235.
The growing adoption of IoT devices in our daily life engendered a need for secure systems to safely store and analyze sensitive data as well as the real-time data processing system to be as fast as possible. The cloud services used to store and process sensitive data are often come out to be vulnerable to outside threats. Furthermore, to analyze streaming IoT data swiftly, they are in need of a fast and efficient system. The Paper will envision the aspects of complexity dealing with real time data from various devices in parallel, building solution to ingest data from different IOT devices, forming a secure platform to process data in a short time, and using various techniques of IOT edge computing to provide meaningful intuitive results to users. The paper envisions two modules of building a real time data analytics system. In the first module, we propose to maintain confidentiality and integrity of IoT data, which is of paramount importance, and manage large-scale data analytics with real-time data collection from various IoT devices in parallel. We envision a framework to preserve data privacy utilizing Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) such as Intel SGX, end-to-end data encryption mechanism, and strong access control policies. Moreover, we design a generic framework to simplify the process of collecting and storing heterogeneous data coming from diverse IoT devices. In the second module, we envision a drone-based data processing system in real-time using edge computing and on-device computing. As, we know the use of drones is growing rapidly across many application domains including real-time monitoring, remote sensing, search and rescue, delivery of goods, security and surveillance, civil infrastructure inspection etc. This paper demonstrates the potential drone applications and their challenges discussing current research trends and provide future insights for potential use cases using edge and on-device computing.