Visible to the public Biblio

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Joo, M., Seo, J., Oh, J., Park, M., Lee, K..  2018.  Situational Awareness Framework for Cyber Crime Prevention Model in Cyber Physical System. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :837-842.

Recently, IoT, 5G mobile, big data, and artificial intelligence are increasingly used in the real world. These technologies are based on convergenced in Cyber Physical System(Cps). Cps technology requires core technologies to ensure reliability, real-time, safety, autonomy, and security. CPS is the system that can connect between cyberspace and physical space. Cyberspace attacks are confused in the real world and have a lot of damage. The personal information that dealing in CPS has high confidentiality, so the policies and technique will needed to protect the attack in advance. If there is an attack on the CPS, not only personal information but also national confidential data can be leaked. In order to prevent this, the risk is measured using the Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) Model, which can measure risk by element for situational awareness in CPS environment. To reduce risk by preventing attacks in CPS, this paper measures risk after using the concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design(CPTED).

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Kim, J., Moon, I., Lee, K., Suh, S. C., Kim, I..  2015.  Scalable Security Event Aggregation for Situation Analysis. 2015 IEEE First International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications. :14–23.

Cyber-attacks have been evolved in a way to be more sophisticated by employing combinations of attack methodologies with greater impacts. For instance, Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) employ a set of stealthy hacking processes running over a long period of time, making it much hard to detect. With this trend, the importance of big-data security analytics has taken greater attention since identifying such latest attacks requires large-scale data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present SEAS-MR (Security Event Aggregation System over MapReduce) that facilitates scalable security event aggregation for comprehensive situation analysis. The introduced system provides the following three core functions: (i) periodic aggregation, (ii) on-demand aggregation, and (iii) query support for effective analysis. We describe our design and implementation of the system over MapReduce and high-level query languages, and report our experimental results collected through extensive settings on a Hadoop cluster for performance evaluation and design impacts.

Kim, Y.-K., Lee, J. J., Go, M.-H., Lee, K..  2020.  Analysis of the Asymmetrical Relationships between State Actors and APT Threat Groups. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :695–700.
During the Cold War era, countries with asymmetrical relationships often demonstrated how lower-tier nation states required the alliance and support from top-tier nation states. This statement no longer stands true as country such as North Korea has exploited global financial institutions through various malware such as WANNACRY V0, V1, V2, evtsys.exe, and BRAMBUL WORM. Top tier nation states such as the U.S. are unable to use diplomatic clout or to retaliate against the deferrer. Our study examined the affidavit filed against the North Korean hacker, Park Jin Hyok, which was provided by the FBI. Our paper focuses on the operations and campaigns that were carried out by the Lazarus Group by focusing on the key factors of the infrastructure and artifacts. Due to the nature of the cyber deterrence, deterrence in the cyber realm is far complex than the nuclear deterrence. We focused on the Sony Picture Entertainment’s incident for our study. In this study, we discuss how cyber deterrence can be employed when different nation states share an asymmetrical relationship. Furthermore, we focus on contestability and attribution that is a key factor that makes cyber deterrence difficult.
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Lee, K., Kolsch, M..  2015.  Shot Boundary Detection with Graph Theory Using Keypoint Features and Color Histograms. 2015 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision. :1177–1184.

The TRECVID report of 2010 [14] evaluated video shot boundary detectors as achieving "excellent performance on [hard] cuts and gradual transitions." Unfortunately, while re-evaluating the state of the art of the shot boundary detection, we found that they need to be improved because the characteristics of consumer-produced videos have changed significantly since the introduction of mobile gadgets, such as smartphones, tablets and outdoor activity purposed cameras, and video editing software has been evolving rapidly. In this paper, we evaluate the best-known approach on a contemporary, publicly accessible corpus, and present a method that achieves better performance, particularly on soft transitions. Our method combines color histograms with key point feature matching to extract comprehensive frame information. Two similarity metrics, one for individual frames and one for sets of frames, are defined based on graph cuts. These metrics are formed into temporal feature vectors on which a SVM is trained to perform the final segmentation. The evaluation on said "modern" corpus of relatively short videos yields a performance of 92% recall (at 89% precision) overall, compared to 69% (91%) of the best-known method.

Lee, K., Reardon, C., Fink, J..  2018.  Augmented Reality in Human-Robot Cooperative Search. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). :1–1.

Robots operating alongside humans in field environments have the potential to greatly increase the situational awareness of their human teammates. A significant challenge, however, is the efficient conveyance of what the robot perceives to the human in order to achieve improved situational awareness. We believe augmented reality (AR), which allows a human to simultaneously perceive the real world and digital information situated virtually in the real world, has the potential to address this issue. We propose to demonstrate that augmented reality can be used to enable human-robot cooperative search, where the robot can both share search results and assist the human teammate in navigating to a search target.

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Park, H. K., Kim, M. S., Park, M., Lee, K..  2017.  Cyber Situational Awareness Enhancement with Regular Expressions and an Evaluation Methodology. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :406–411.

Cybersecurity is one of critical issues in modern military operations. In cyber operations, security professionals depend on various information and security systems to mitigate cyber threats through enhanced cyber situational awareness. Cyber situational awareness can give decision makers mission completeness and providing appropriate timely decision support for proactive response. The crucial information for cyber situational awareness can be collected at network boundaries through deep packet inspection with security systems. Regular expression is regarded as a practical method for deep packet inspection that is considering a next generation intrusion detection and prevention, however, it is not commonly used by the reason of its resource intensive characteristics. In this paper, we describe our effort and achievement on regular expression processing capability in real time and an evaluation method with experimental result.

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Reardon, C., Lee, K., Fink, J..  2018.  Come See This! Augmented Reality to Enable Human-Robot Cooperative Search. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR). :1—7.

Robots operating alongside humans in field environments have the potential to greatly increase the situational awareness of their human teammates. A significant challenge, however, is the efficient conveyance of what the robot perceives to the human in order to achieve improved situational awareness. We believe augmented reality (AR), which allows a human to simultaneously perceive the real world and digital information situated virtually in the real world, has the potential to address this issue. Motivated by the emerging prevalence of practical human-wearable AR devices, we present a system that enables a robot to perform cooperative search with a human teammate, where the robot can both share search results and assist the human teammate in navigation to the search target. We demonstrate this ability in a search task in an uninstrumented environment where the robot identifies and localizes targets and provides navigation direction via AR to bring the human to the correct target.

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Wu, C., Kuo, M., Lee, K..  2018.  A Dynamic-Key Secure Scan Structure Against Scan-Based Side Channel and Memory Cold Boot Attacks. 2018 IEEE 27th Asian Test Symposium (ATS). :48-53.

Scan design is a universal design for test (DFT) technology to increase the observability and controllability of the circuits under test by using scan chains. However, it also leads to a potential security problem that attackers can use scan design as a backdoor to extract confidential information. Researchers have tried to address this problem by using secure scan structures that usually have some keys to confirm the identities of users. However, the traditional methods to store intermediate data or keys in memory are also under high risk of being attacked. In this paper, we propose a dynamic-key secure DFT structure that can defend scan-based and memory attacks without decreasing the system performance and the testability. The main idea is to build a scan design key generator that can generate the keys dynamically instead of storing and using keys in the circuit statically. Only specific patterns derived from the original test patterns are valid to construct the keys and hence the attackers cannot shift in any other patterns to extract correct internal response from the scan chains or retrieve the keys from memory. Analysis results show that the proposed method can achieve a very high security level and the security level will not decrease no matter how many guess rounds the attackers have tried due to the dynamic nature of our method.