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Xu, H., Hu, L., Liu, P., Xiao, Y., Wang, W., Dayal, J., Wang, Q., Tang, Y..  2018.  Oases: An Online Scalable Spam Detection System for Social Networks. 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :98–105.
Web-based social networks enable new community-based opportunities for participants to engage, share their thoughts, and interact with each other. Theses related activities such as searching and advertising are threatened by spammers, content polluters, and malware disseminators. We propose a scalable spam detection system, termed Oases, for uncovering social spam in social networks using an online and scalable approach. The novelty of our design lies in two key components: (1) a decentralized DHT-based tree overlay deployment for harvesting and uncovering deceptive spam from social communities; and (2) a progressive aggregation tree for aggregating the properties of these spam posts for creating new spam classifiers to actively filter out new spam. We design and implement the prototype of Oases and discuss the design considerations of the proposed approach. Our large-scale experiments using real-world Twitter data demonstrate scalability, attractive load-balancing, and graceful efficiency in online spam detection for social networks.
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Wu, F., Wang, J., Liu, J., Wang, W..  2017.  Vulnerability detection with deep learning. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1298–1302.
Vulnerability detection is an import issue in information system security. In this work, we propose the deep learning method for vulnerability detection. We present three deep learning models, namely, convolution neural network (CNN), long short term memory (LSTM) and convolution neural network — long short term memory (CNN-LSTM). In order to test the performance of our approach, we collected 9872 sequences of function calls as features to represent the patterns of binary programs during their execution. We apply our deep learning models to predict the vulnerabilities of these binary programs based on the collected data. The experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of our proposed method reaches 83.6%, which is superior to that of traditional method like multi-layer perceptron (MLP).
Wang, W., Hussein, N., Gupta, A., Wang, Y..  2017.  A Regression Model Based Approach for Identifying Security Requirements in Open Source Software Development. 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops (REW). :443–446.

There are several security requirements identification methods proposed by researchers in up-front requirements engineering (RE). However, in open source software (OSS) projects, developers use lightweight representation and refine requirements frequently by writing comments. They also tend to discuss security aspect in comments by providing code snippets, attachments, and external resource links. Since most security requirements identification methods in up-front RE are based on textual information retrieval techniques, these methods are not suitable for OSS projects or just-in-time RE. In our study, we propose a new model based on logistic regression to identify security requirements in OSS projects. We used five metrics to build security requirements identification models and tested the performance of these metrics by applying those models to three OSS projects. Our results show that four out of five metrics achieved high performance in intra-project testing.

Wang, W., Xuan, S., Yang, W., Chen, Y..  2019.  User Credibility Assessment Based on Trust Propagation in Microblog. 2019 Computing, Communications and IoT Applications (ComComAp). :270—275.

Nowadays, Microblog has become an important online social networking platform, and a large number of users share information through Microblog. Many malicious users have released various false news driven by various interests, which seriously affects the availability of Microblog platform. Therefore, the evaluation of Microblog user credibility has become an important research issue. This paper proposes a microblog user credibility evaluation algorithm based on trust propagation. In view of the high consumption and low precision caused by malicious users' attacking algorithms and manual selection of seed sets by establishing false social relationships, this paper proposes two optimization strategies: pruning algorithm based on social activity and similarity and based on The seed node selection algorithm of clustering. The pruning algorithm can trim off the attack edges established by malicious users and normal users. The seed node selection algorithm can efficiently select the highly available seed node set, and finally use the user social relationship graph to perform the two-way propagation trust scoring, so that the low trusted user has a lower trusted score and thus identifies the malicious user. The related experiments verify the effectiveness of the trustworthiness-based user credibility evaluation algorithm in the evaluation of Microblog user credibility.

Wang, W., Tang, B., Zhu, C., Liu, B., Li, A., Ding, Z..  2020.  Clustering Using a Similarity Measure Approach Based on Semantic Analysis of Adversary Behaviors. 2020 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :1—7.

Rapidly growing shared information for threat intelligence not only helps security analysts reduce time on tracking attacks, but also bring possibilities to research on adversaries' thinking and decisions, which is important for the further analysis of attackers' habits and preferences. In this paper, we analyze current models and frameworks used in threat intelligence that suited to different modeling goals, and propose a three-layer model (Goal, Behavior, Capability) to study the statistical characteristics of APT groups. Based on the proposed model, we construct a knowledge network composed of adversary behaviors, and introduce a similarity measure approach to capture similarity degree by considering different semantic links between groups. After calculating similarity degrees, we take advantage of Girvan-Newman algorithm to discover community groups, clustering result shows that community structures and boundaries do exist by analyzing the behavior of APT groups.

Wang, W., Zhang, X., Dong, L., Fan, Y., Diao, X., Xu, T..  2020.  Network Attack Detection based on Domain Attack Behavior Analysis. 2020 13th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI). :962—965.

Network security has become an important issue in our work and life. Hackers' attack mode has been upgraded from normal attack to APT( Advanced Persistent Threat, APT) attack. The key of APT attack chain is the penetration and intrusion of active directory, which can not be completely detected via the traditional IDS and antivirus software. Further more, lack of security protection of existing solutions for domain control aggravates this problem. Although researchers have proposed methods for domain attack detection, many of them have not yet been converted into effective market-oriented products. In this paper, we analyzes the common domain intrusion methods, various domain related attack behavior characteristics were extracted from ATT&CK matrix (Advanced tactics, techniques, and common knowledge) for analysis and simulation test. Based on analyzing the log file generated by the attack, the domain attack detection rules are established and input into the analysis engine. Finally, the available domain intrusion detection system is designed and implemented. Experimental results show that the network attack detection method based on the analysis of domain attack behavior can analyze the log file in real time and effectively detect the malicious intrusion behavior of hackers , which could facilitate managers find and eliminate network security threats immediately.

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Romano, A., Zheng, Y., Wang, W..  2020.  MinerRay: Semantics-Aware Analysis for Ever-Evolving Cryptojacking Detection. 2020 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :1129—1140.
Recent advances in web technology have made in-browser crypto-mining a viable funding model. However, these services have been abused to launch large-scale cryptojacking attacks to secretly mine cryptocurrency in browsers. To detect them, various signature-based or runtime feature-based methods have been proposed. However, they can be imprecise or easily circumvented. To this end, we propose MinerRay, a generic scheme to detect malicious in-browser cryptominers. Instead of leveraging unreliable external patterns, MinerRay infers the essence of cryptomining behaviors that differentiate mining from common browser activities in both WebAssembly and JavaScript contexts. Additionally, to detect stealthy mining activities without user consents, MinerRay checks if the miner can only be instantiated from user actions. MinerRay was evaluated on over 1 million websites. It detected cryptominers on 901 websites, where 885 secretly start mining without user consent. Besides, we compared MinerRay with five state-of-the-art signature-based or behavior-based cryptominer detectors (MineSweeper, CMTracker, Outguard, No Coin, and minerBlock). We observed that emerging miners with new signatures or new services were detected by MinerRay but missed by others. The results show that our proposed technique is effective and robust in detecting evolving cryptominers, yielding more true positives, and fewer errors.
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Liu, H., Wang, W., He, Z., Tong, Q., Wang, X., Yu, W., Lv, M..  2015.  Blind image quality evaluation metrics design for UAV photographic application. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER). :293–297.

A number of blind Image Quality Evaluation Metrics (IQEMs) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photograph application are presented. Nowadays, the visible light camera is widely used for UAV photograph application because of its vivid imaging effect; however, the outdoor environment light will produce great negative influences on its imaging output unfortunately. In this paper, to conquer this problem above, we design and reuse a series of blind IQEMs to analyze the imaging quality of UAV application. The Human Visual System (HVS) based IQEMs, including the image brightness level, the image contrast level, the image noise level, the image edge blur level, the image texture intensity level, the image jitter level, and the image flicker level, are all considered in our application. Once these IQEMs are calculated, they can be utilized to provide a computational reference for the following image processing application, such as image understanding and recognition. Some preliminary experiments for image enhancement have proved the correctness and validity of our proposed technique.

Li, Y., Yang, Y., Yu, X., Yang, T., Dong, L., Wang, W..  2020.  IoT-APIScanner: Detecting API Unauthorized Access Vulnerabilities of IoT Platform. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—5.

The Internet of Things enables interaction between IoT devices and users through the cloud. The cloud provides services such as account monitoring, device management, and device control. As the center of the IoT platform, the cloud provides services to IoT devices and IoT applications through APIs. Therefore, the permission verification of the API is essential. However, we found that some APIs are unverified, which allows unauthorized users to access cloud resources or control devices; it could threaten the security of devices and cloud. To check for unauthorized access to the API, we developed IoT-APIScanner, a framework to check the permission verification of the cloud API. Through observation, we found there is a large amount of interactive information between IoT application and cloud, which include the APIs and related parameters, so we can extract them by analyzing the code of the IoT application, and use this for mutating API test cases. Through these test cases, we can effectively check the permissions of the API. In our research, we extracted a total of 5 platform APIs. Among them, the proportion of APIs without permission verification reached 13.3%. Our research shows that attackers could use the API without permission verification to obtain user privacy or control of devices.

Li, M., Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Wang, W., Tsang, I. W., Lin, X..  2020.  I/O Efficient Approximate Nearest Neighbour Search based on Learned Functions. 2020 IEEE 36th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :289–300.
Approximate nearest neighbour search (ANNS) in high dimensional space is a fundamental problem in many applications, such as multimedia database, computer vision and information retrieval. Among many solutions, data-sensitive hashing-based methods are effective to this problem, yet few of them are designed for external storage scenarios and hence do not optimized for I/O efficiency during the query processing. In this paper, we introduce a novel data-sensitive indexing and query processing framework for ANNS with an emphasis on optimizing the I/O efficiency, especially, the sequential I/Os. The proposed index consists of several lists of point IDs, ordered by values that are obtained by learned hashing (i.e., mapping) functions on each corresponding data point. The functions are learned from the data and approximately preserve the order in the high-dimensional space. We consider two instantiations of the functions (linear and non-linear), both learned from the data with novel objective functions. We also develop an I/O efficient ANNS framework based on the index. Comprehensive experiments on six benchmark datasets show that our proposed methods with learned index structure perform much better than the state-of-the-art external memory-based ANNS methods in terms of I/O efficiency and accuracy.
Li, L., Wu, S., Huang, L., Wang, W..  2017.  Research on modeling for network security policy confliction based on network topology. 2017 14th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :36–41.

The consistency checking of network security policy is an important issue of network security field, but current studies lack of overall security strategy modeling and entire network checking. In order to check the consistency of policy in distributed network system, a security policy model is proposed based on network topology, which checks conflicts of security policies for all communication paths in the network. First, the model uniformly describes network devices, domains and links, abstracts the network topology as an undirected graph, and formats the ACL (Access Control List) rules into quintuples. Then, based on the undirected graph, the model searches all possible paths between all domains in the topology, and checks the quintuple consistency by using a classifying algorithm. The experiments in campus network demonstrate that this model can effectively detect the conflicts of policy globally in the distributed network and ensure the consistency of the network security policies.

Lan, T., Wang, W., Huang, G. M..  2017.  False data injection attack in smart grid topology control: Vulnerability and countermeasure. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.
Cyber security is a crucial factor for modern power system as many applications are heavily relied on the result of state estimation. Therefore, it is necessary to assess and enhance cyber security for new applications in power system. As an emerging technology, smart grid topology control has been investigated in stability and reliability perspectives while the associated cyber security issue is not studied before. In successful false data injection attack (FDIA) against AC state estimation, attacker could alter online stability check result by decreasing real power flow measurement on the switching target line to undermine physical system stability in topology control. The physical impact of FDIA on system control operation and stability are illustrated. The vulnerability is discussed on perfect FDIA and imperfect FDIA against residue based bad data detection and corresponding countermeasure is proposed to secure critical substations in the system. The vulnerability and countermeasure are demonstrated on IEEE 24 bus reliability test system (RTS).
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Huo, T., Wang, W., Zhao, P., Li, Y., Wang, T., Li, M..  2020.  TEADS: A Defense-Aware Framework for Synthesizing Transient Execution Attacks. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :320—327.

Since 2018, a broad class of microarchitectural attacks called transient execution attacks (e.g., Spectre and Meltdown) have been disclosed. By abusing speculative execution mechanisms in modern CPUs, these attacks enable adversaries to leak secrets across security boundaries. A transient execution attack typically evolves through multiple stages, termed the attack chain. We find that current transient execution attacks usually rely on static attack chains, resulting in that any blockage in an attack chain may cause the failure of the entire attack. In this paper, we propose a novel defense-aware framework, called TEADS, for synthesizing transient execution attacks dynamically. The main idea of TEADS is that: each attacking stage in a transient execution attack chain can be implemented in several ways, and the implementations used in different attacking stages can be combined together under certain constraints. By constructing an attacking graph representing combination relationships between the implementations and testing available paths in the attacking graph dynamically, we can finally synthesize transient execution attacks which can bypass the imposed defense techniques. Our contributions include: (1) proposing an automated defense-aware framework for synthesizing transient execution attacks, even though possible combinations of defense strategies are enabled; (2) presenting an attacking graph extension algorithm to detect potential attack chains dynamically; (3) implementing TEADS and testing it on several modern CPUs with different protection settings. Experimental results show that TEADS can bypass the defenses equipped, improving the adaptability and durability of transient execution attacks.

Huang, Y., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Jiang, T., Zhang, Q..  2020.  Lightweight Sybil-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks by Multipath Manipulation. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2185–2193.

Wireless networking opens up many opportunities to facilitate miniaturized robots in collaborative tasks, while the openness of wireless medium exposes robots to the threats of Sybil attackers, who can break the fundamental trust assumption in robotic collaboration by forging a large number of fictitious robots. Recent advances advocate the adoption of bulky multi-antenna systems to passively obtain fine-grained physical layer signatures, rendering them unaffordable to miniaturized robots. To overcome this conundrum, this paper presents ScatterID, a lightweight system that attaches featherlight and batteryless backscatter tags to single-antenna robots to defend against Sybil attacks. Instead of passively "observing" signatures, ScatterID actively "manipulates" multipath propagation by using backscatter tags to intentionally create rich multipath features obtainable to a single-antenna robot. These features are used to construct a distinct profile to detect the real signal source, even when the attacker is mobile and power-scaling. We implement ScatterID on the iRobot Create platform and evaluate it in typical indoor and outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our system achieves a high AUROC of 0.988 and an overall accuracy of 96.4% for identity verification.

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Cui, W., Li, X., Huang, J., Wang, W., Wang, S., Chen, J..  2020.  Substitute Model Generation for Black-Box Adversarial Attack Based on Knowledge Distillation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :648–652.
Although deep convolutional neural network (CNN) performs well in many computer vision tasks, its classification mechanism is very vulnerable when it is exposed to the perturbation of adversarial attacks. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm to generate the substitute model of black-box CNN models by using knowledge distillation. The proposed algorithm distills multiple CNN teacher models to a compact student model as the substitution of other black-box CNN models to be attacked. The black-box adversarial samples can be consequently generated on this substitute model by using various white-box attacking methods. According to our experiments on ResNet18 and DenseNet121, our algorithm boosts the attacking success rate (ASR) by 20% by training the substitute model based on knowledge distillation.