Visible to the public Biblio

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Larasati, H. T., Kim, H..  2020.  Simulation of Modular Exponentiation Circuit for Shor's Algorithm in Qiskit. 2020 14th International Conference on Telecommunication Systems, Services, and Applications (TSSA. :1–7.
This paper discusses and demonstrates the construction of a quantum modular exponentiation circuit in the Qiskit simulator for use in Shor's Algorithm for integer factorization problem (IFP), which is deemed to be able to crack RSA cryptosystems when a large-qubit quantum computer exists. We base our implementation on Vedral, Barenco, and Ekert (VBE) proposal of quantum modular exponentiation, one of the firsts to explicitly provide the aforementioned circuit. Furthermore, we present an example simulation of how to construct a 7xmod 15 circuit in a step-by-step manner, giving clear and detailed information and consideration that currently not provided in the existing literature, and present the whole circuit for use in Shor's Algorithm. Our present simulation shows that the 4-bit VBE quantum modular exponentiation circuit can be constructed, simulated, and measured in Qiskit, while the Shor's Algorithm incorporating this VBE approach itself can be constructed but not yet simulated due to an overly large number of QASM instructions.
Lee, J., Chen, H., Young, J., Kim, H..  2020.  RISC-V FPGA Platform Toward ROS-Based Robotics Application. 2020 30th International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL). :370—370.

RISC-V is free and open standard instruction set architecture following reduced instruction set computer principle. Because of its openness and scalability, RISC-V has been adapted not only for embedded CPUs such as mobile and IoT market, but also for heavy-workload CPUs such as the data center or super computing field. On top of it, Robotics is also a good application of RISC-V because security and reliability become crucial issues of robotics system. These problems could be solved by enthusiastic open source community members as they have shown on open source operating system. However, running RISC-V on local FPGA becomes harder than before because now RISC-V foundation are focusing on cloud-based FPGA environment. We have experienced that recently released OS and toolchains for RISC-V are not working well on the previous CPU image for local FPGA. In this paper we design the local FPGA platform for RISC-V processor and run the robotics application on mainstream Robot Operating System on top of the RISC-V processor. This platform allow us to explore the architecture space of RISC-V CPU for robotics application, and get the insight of the RISC-V CPU architecture for optimal performance and the secure system.

Lim, K., Islam, T., Kim, H., Joung, J..  2020.  A Sybil Attack Detection Scheme based on ADAS Sensors for Vehicular Networks. 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–5.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a promising technology for autonomous driving as it provides many benefits and user conveniences to improve road safety and driving comfort. Sybil attack is one of the most serious threats in vehicular communications because attackers can generate multiple forged identities to disseminate false messages to disrupt safety-related services or misuse the systems. To address this issue, we propose a Sybil attack detection scheme using ADAS (Advanced Driving Assistant System) sensors installed on modern passenger vehicles, without the assistance of trusted third party authorities or infrastructure. Also, a deep learning based object detection technique is used to accurately identify nearby objects for Sybil attack detection and the multi-step verification process minimizes the false positive of the detection.
Niz, D. de, Andersson, B., Klein, M., Lehoczky, J., Vasudevan, A., Kim, H., Moreno, G..  2019.  Mixed-Trust Computing for Real-Time Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA). :1—11.

Verifying complex Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is increasingly important given the push to deploy safety-critical autonomous features. Unfortunately, traditional verification methods do not scale to the complexity of these systems and do not provide systematic methods to protect verified properties when not all the components can be verified. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a real-time mixed-trust computing framework that combines verification and protection. The framework introduces a new task model, where an application task can have both an untrusted and a trusted part. The untrusted part allows complex computations supported by a full OS with a realtime scheduler running in a VM hosted by a trusted hypervisor. The trusted part is executed by another scheduler within the hypervisor and is thus protected from the untrusted part. If the untrusted part fails to finish by a specific time, the trusted part is activated to preserve safety (e.g., prevent a crash) including its timing guarantees. This framework is the first allowing the use of untrusted components for CPS critical functions while preserving logical and timing guarantees, even in the presence of malicious attackers. We present the framework design and implementation along with the schedulability analysis and the coordination protocol between the trusted and untrusted parts. We also present our Raspberry Pi 3 implementation along with experiments showing the behavior of the system under failures of untrusted components, and a drone application to demonstrate its practicality.

Kim, S., Jin, S., Lee, Y., Park, B., Kim, H., Hong, S..  2018.  Single Trace Side Channel Analysis on Quantum Key Distribution. 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :736–739.

The security of current key exchange protocols such as Diffie-Hellman key exchange is based on the hardness of number theoretic problems. However, these key exchange protocols are threatened by weak random number generators, advances to CPU power, a new attack from the eavesdropper, and the emergence of a quantum computer. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) addresses these challenges by using quantum properties to exchange a secret key without the risk of being intercepted. Recent developments on the QKD system resulted in a stable key generation with fewer errors so that the QKD system is rapidly becoming a solid commercial proposition. However, although the security of the QKD system is guaranteed by quantum physics, its careless implementation could make the system vulnerable. In this paper, we proposed the first side-channel attack on plug-and-play QKD system. Through a single electromagnetic trace obtained from the phase modulator on Alice's side, we were able to classify the electromagnetic trace into four classes, which corresponds to the number of bit and basis combination in the BB84 protocol. We concluded that the plug-and-play QKD system is vulnerable to side-channel attack so that the countermeasure must be considered.

Kim, H., Hahn, C., Hur, J..  2019.  Analysis of Forward Private Searchable Encryption and Its Application to Multi-Client Settings. 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :529-531.

Searchable encryption (SE) supports privacy-preserving searches over encrypted data. Recent studies on SE have focused on improving efficiency of the schemes. However, it was shown that most of the previous SE schemes could reveal the client's queries even if they are encrypted, thereby leading to privacy violation. In order to solve the problem, several forward private SE schemes have been proposed in a single client environment. However, the previous forward private SE schemes have never been analyzed in multi-client settings. In this paper, we briefly review the previous forward private SE schemes. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of them in terms of performance and forward privacy. Our analysis demonstrates the previous forward secure SE schemes highly depend on the file-counter. Lastly, we show that they are not scalable in multi-client settings due to the performance and security issue from the file-counter.

Kim, H., Yun, S., Lee, J., Yi, O..  2018.  Lightweight Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement in IoT Networks and Wireless Sensor Networks Proposal of Authentication and Key Agreement in IoT Network and Sensor Network Using Poor Wireless Communication of Less Than 1 Kbps. 2018 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1–6.

Recently, as the age of the Internet of Things is approaching, there are more and more devices that communicate data with each other by incorporating sensors and communication functions in various objects. If the IoT is miniaturized, it can be regarded as a sensor having only the sensing ability and the low performance communication ability. Low-performance sensors are difficult to use high-quality communication, and wireless security used in expensive wireless communication devices cannot be applied. Therefore, this paper proposes authentication and key Agreement that can be applied in sensor networks using communication with speed less than 1 Kbps and has limited performances.

Lee, D. ', La, W. Gyu, Kim, H..  2018.  Drone Detection and Identification System Using Artificial Intelligence. 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1131-1133.

As drone attracts much interest, the drone industry has opened their market to ordinary people, making drones to be used in daily lives. However, as it got easier for drone to be used by more people, safety and security issues have raised as accidents are much more likely to happen: colliding into people by losing control or invading secured properties. For safety purposes, it is essential for observers and drone to be aware of an approaching drone. In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive drone detection system based on machine learning. This system is designed to be operable on drones with camera. Based on the camera images, the system deduces location on image and vendor model of drone based on machine classification. The system is actually built with OpenCV library. We collected drone imagery and information for learning process. The system's output shows about 89 percent accuracy.

Kim, H., Yoon, J. I., Jang, Y., Park, S..  2017.  Design of heterogeneous integrated digital signature system for ensuring platform independence. 2017 4th International Conference on Computer Applications and Information Processing Technology (CAIPT). :1–4.

Recently, digital transactions in real estate, insurance, etc. have become popular, and researchers are actively studying digital signatures as a method for distinguishing individuals. However, existing digital signature systems have different methods for making signatures depending on the platform and device, and because they are used on platforms owned by corporations, they have the disadvantage of being highly platform-dependent and having low software extensibility. Therefore, in this paper we have analyzed existing digital signature systems and designed a heterogeneous integrated digital signature system which has per-user contract management features and can guarantee platform independence and increase the ease of software extension and maintenance by using a browser environment.

Cho, G., Huh, J. H., Cho, J., Oh, S., Song, Y., Kim, H..  2017.  SysPal: System-Guided Pattern Locks for Android. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :338–356.

To improve the security of user-chosen Android screen lock patterns, we propose a novel system-guided pattern lock scheme called "SysPal" that mandates the use of a small number of randomly selected points while selecting a pattern. Users are given the freedom to use those mandated points at any position. We conducted a large-scale online study with 1,717 participants to evaluate the security and usability of three SysPal policies, varying the number of mandatory points that must be used (upon selecting a pattern) from one to three. Our results suggest that the two SysPal policies that mandate the use of one and two points can help users select significantly more secure patterns compared to the current Android policy: 22.58% and 23.19% fewer patterns were cracked. Those two SysPal policies, however, did not show any statistically significant inferiority in pattern recall success rate (the percentage of participants who correctly recalled their pattern after 24 hours). In our lab study, we asked participants to install our screen unlock application on their own Android device, and observed their real-life phone unlock behaviors for a day. Again, our lab study did not show any statistically significant difference in memorability for those two SysPal policies compared to the current Android policy.

Kim, H., Yoo, D., Kang, J. S., Yeom, Y..  2017.  Dynamic Ransomware Protection Using Deterministic Random Bit Generator. 2017 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :64–68.

Ransomware has become a very significant cyber threat. The basic idea of ransomware was presented in the form of a cryptovirus in 1995. However, it was considered as merely a conceptual topic since then for over a decade. In 2017, ransomware has become a reality, with several famous cases of ransomware having compromised important computer systems worldwide. For example, the damage caused by CryptoLocker and WannaCry is huge, as well as global. They encrypt victims' files and require user's payment to decrypt them. Because they utilize public key cryptography, the key for recovery cannot be found in the footprint of the ransomware on the victim's system. Therefore, once infected, the system cannot be recovered without paying for restoration. Various methods to deal this threat have been developed by antivirus researchers and experts in network security. However, it is believed that cryptographic defense is infeasible because recovering a victim's files is computationally as difficult as breaking a public key cryptosystem. Quite recently, various approaches to protect the crypto-API of an OS from malicious codes have been proposed. Most ransomware generate encryption keys using the random number generation service provided by the victim's OS. Thus, if a user can control all random numbers generated by the system, then he/she can recover the random numbers used by the ransomware for the encryption key. In this paper, we propose a dynamic ransomware protection method that replaces the random number generator of the OS with a user-defined generator. As the proposed method causes the virus program to generate keys based on the output from the user-defined generator, it is possible to recover an infected file system by reproducing the keys the attacker used to perform the encryption.

Hong, H., Choi, H., Kim, D., Kim, H., Hong, B., Noh, J., Kim, Y..  2017.  When Cellular Networks Met IPv6: Security Problems of Middleboxes in IPv6 Cellular Networks. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :595–609.

Recently, cellular operators have started migrating to IPv6 in response to the increasing demand for IP addresses. With the introduction of IPv6, cellular middleboxes, such as firewalls for preventing malicious traffic from the Internet and stateful NAT64 boxes for providing backward compatibility with legacy IPv4 services, have become crucial to maintain stability of cellular networks. This paper presents security problems of the currently deployed IPv6 middleboxes of five major operators. To this end, we first investigate several key features of the current IPv6 deployment that can harm the safety of a cellular network as well as its customers. These features combined with the currently deployed IPv6 middlebox allow an adversary to launch six different attacks. First, firewalls in IPv6 cellular networks fail to block incoming packets properly. Thus, an adversary could fingerprint cellular devices with scanning, and further, she could launch denial-of-service or over-billing attacks. Second, vulnerabilities in the stateful NAT64 box, a middlebox that maps an IPv6 address to an IPv4 address (and vice versa), allow an adversary to launch three different attacks: 1) NAT overflow attack that allows an adversary to overflow the NAT resources, 2) NAT wiping attack that removes active NAT mappings by exploiting the lack of TCP sequence number verification of firewalls, and 3) NAT bricking attack that targets services adopting IP-based blacklisting by preventing the shared external IPv4 address from accessing the service. We confirmed the feasibility of these attacks with an empirical analysis. We also propose effective countermeasures for each attack.

Kim, H., Ben-Othman, J., Mokdad, L., Cho, S., Bellavista, P..  2017.  On collision-free reinforced barriers for multi domain IoT with heterogeneous UAVs. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :466–471.

Thanks to advancement of vehicle technologies, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) now widely spread over practical services and applications affecting daily life of people positively. Especially, multiple heterogeneous UAVs with different capabilities should be considered since UAVs can play an important role in Internet of Things (IoT) environment in which the heterogeneity and the multi domain of UAVs are indispensable. Also, a concept of barrier-coverage has been proved as a promising one applicable to surveillance and security. In this paper, we present collision-free reinforced barriers by heterogeneous UAVs to support multi domain. Then, we define a problem which is to minimize maximum movement of UAVs on condition that a property of collision-free among UAVs is assured while they travel from current positions to specific locations so as to form reinforced barriers within multi domain. Because the defined problem depends on how to locate UAVs on barriers, we develop a novel approach that provides a collision-free movement as well as a creation of virtual lines in multi domain. Furthermore, we address future research topics which should be handled carefully for the barrier-coverage by heterogeneous UAVs.

Ahmed, M. E., Kim, H., Park, M..  2017.  Mitigating DNS query-based DDoS attacks with machine learning on software-defined networking. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :11–16.

Securing Internet of Things is a challenge because of its multiple points of vulnerability. In particular, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks on IoT devices pose a major security challenge to be addressed. In this paper, we propose a DNS query-based DDoS attack mitigation system using Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to block the network traffic for DDoS attacks. With some features provided by SDN, we can analyze traffic patterns and filter suspicious network flows out. To show the feasibility of the proposed system, we particularly implemented a prototype with Dirichlet process mixture model to distinguish benign traffic from malicious traffic and conducted experiments with the dataset collected from real network traces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by both simulations and experiment data obtained from the real network traffic traces.

Ahmed, M. E., Kim, H..  2017.  DDoS Attack Mitigation in Internet of Things Using Software Defined Networking. 2017 IEEE Third International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications (BigDataService). :271–276.

Securing Internet of Things (IoT) systems is a challenge because of its multiple points of vulnerability. A spate of recent hacks and security breaches has unveiled glaring vulnerabilities in the IoT. Due to the computational and memory requirement constraints associated with anomaly detection algorithms in core networks, commercial in-line (part of the direct line of communication) Anomaly Detection Systems (ADSs) rely on sampling-based anomaly detection approaches to achieve line rates and truly-inline anomaly detection accuracy in real-time. However, packet sampling is inherently a lossy process which might provide an incomplete and biased approximation of the underlying traffic patterns. Moreover, commercial routers uses proprietary software making them closed to be manipulated from the outside. As a result, detecting malicious packets on the given network path is one of the most challenging problems in the field of network security. We argue that the advent of Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides a unique opportunity to effectively detect and mitigate DDoS attacks. Unlike sampling-based approaches for anomaly detection and limitation of proprietary software at routers, we use the SDN infrastructure to relax the sampling-based ADS constraints and collect traffic flow statistics which are maintained at each SDN-enabled switch to achieve high detection accuracy. In order to implement our idea, we discuss how to mitigate DDoS attacks using the features of SDN infrastructure.

Bruce, N., Kim, H., Kang, Y., Lee, Y., Lee, H..  2015.  On Modeling Protocol-Based Clustering Tag in RFID Systems with Formal Security Analysis. 2015 IEEE 29th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications. :498–505.

This paper presents an efficiency and adaptive cryptographic protocol to ensure users' privacy and data integrity in RFID system. Radio Frequency Identification technology offers more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before and after its adoption. The design of the proposed model is based on clustering configuration of the involved tags where they interchange the data with the reader whenever it sends a request. This scheme provides a strong mutual authentication framework that suits for real heterogeneous RFID applications such as in supply-chain management systems, healthcare monitoring and industrial environment. In addition, we contribute with a mathematical analysis to the delay analysis and optimization in a clustering topology tag-based. Finally, a formal security and proof analysis is demonstrated to prove the effectiveness of the proposed protocol and that achieves security and privacy.