Visible to the public Biblio

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Yang, Z., Sun, Q., Zhang, Y., Zhu, L., Ji, W..  2020.  Inference of Suspicious Co-Visitation and Co-Rating Behaviors and Abnormality Forensics for Recommender Systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 15:2766—2781.
The pervasiveness of personalized collaborative recommender systems has shown the powerful capability in a wide range of E-commerce services such as Amazon, TripAdvisor, Yelp, etc. However, fundamental vulnerabilities of collaborative recommender systems leave space for malicious users to affect the recommendation results as the attackers desire. A vast majority of existing detection methods assume certain properties of malicious attacks are given in advance. In reality, improving the detection performance is usually constrained due to the challenging issues: (a) various types of malicious attacks coexist, (b) limited representations of malicious attack behaviors, and (c) practical evidences for exploring and spotting anomalies on real-world data are scarce. In this paper, we investigate a unified detection framework in an eye for an eye manner without being bothered by the details of the attacks. Firstly, co-visitation and co-rating graphs are constructed using association rules. Then, attribute representations of nodes are empirically developed from the perspectives of linkage pattern, structure-based property and inherent association of nodes. Finally, both attribute information and connective coherence of graph are combined in order to infer suspicious nodes. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed detection approach compared with competing benchmarks. Additionally, abnormality forensics metrics including distribution of rating intention, time aggregation of suspicious ratings, degree distributions before as well as after removing suspicious nodes and time series analysis of historical ratings, are provided so as to discover interesting findings such as suspicious nodes (items or ratings) on real-world data.
Zhu, L., Zhou, X., Zhang, X..  2020.  A Reversible Meaningful Image Encryption Scheme Based on Block Compressive Sensing. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Communication and Signal Processing (ICICSP). :326–330.
An efficient and reversible meaningful image encryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The plain image is first compressed and encrypted simultaneously by Adaptive Block Compressive Sensing (ABCS) framework to create a noise-like secret image. Next, Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding is employed to embed the secret image into a carrier image to generate the final meaningful cipher image. In this scheme, ABCS improves the compression and efficiency performance, and the embedding and extraction operations are absolutely reversible. The simulation results and security analyses are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness, compression, secrecy of the proposed scheme.
Zhu, L., Chen, C., Su, Z., Chen, W., Li, T., Yu, Z..  2020.  BBS: Micro-Architecture Benchmarking Blockchain Systems through Machine Learning and Fuzzy Set. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). :411–423.
Due to the decentralization, irreversibility, and traceability, blockchain has attracted significant attention and has been deployed in many critical industries such as banking and logistics. However, the micro-architecture characteristics of blockchain programs still remain unclear. What's worse, the large number of micro-architecture events make understanding the characteristics extremely difficult. We even lack a systematic approach to identify the important events to focus on. In this paper, we propose a novel benchmarking methodology dubbed BBS to characterize blockchain programs at micro-architecture level. The key is to leverage fuzzy set theory to identify important micro-architecture events after the significance of them is quantified by a machine learning based approach. The important events for single programs are employed to characterize the programs while the common important events for multiple programs form an importance vector which is used to measure the similarity between benchmarks. We leverage BBS to characterize seven and six benchmarks from Blockbench and Caliper, respectively. The results show that BBS can reveal interesting findings. Moreover, by leveraging the importance characterization results, we improve that the transaction throughput of Smallbank from Fabric by 70% while reduce the transaction latency by 55%. In addition, we find that three of seven and two of six benchmarks from Blockbench and Caliper are redundant, respectively.
Zhu, L., Dong, H., Shen, M., Gai, K..  2019.  An Incentive Mechanism Using Shapley Value for Blockchain-Based Medical Data Sharing. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :113–118.
With the development of big data and machine learning techniques, medical data sharing for the use of disease diagnosis has received considerable attention. Blockchain, as an emerging technology, has been widely used to resolve the efficiency and security issues in medical data sharing. However, the existing studies on blockchain-based medical data sharing have rarely concerned about the reasonable incentive mechanism. In this paper, we propose a cooperation model where medical data is shared via blockchain. We derive the topological relationships among the participants consisting of data owners, miners and third parties, and gradually develop the computational process of Shapley value revenue distribution. Specifically, we explore the revenue distribution under different consensuses of blockchain. Finally, we demonstrate the incentive effect and rationality of the proposed solution by analyzing the revenue distribution.
Zhu, L., Zhang, Z., Xia, G., Jiang, C..  2019.  Research on Vulnerability Ontology Model. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :657–661.
In order to standardize and describe vulnerability information in detail as far as possible and realize knowledge sharing, reuse and extension at the semantic level, a vulnerability ontology is constructed based on the information security public databases such as CVE, CWE and CAPEC and industry public standards like CVSS. By analyzing the relationship between vulnerability class and weakness class, inference rules are defined to realize knowledge inference from vulnerability instance to its consequence and from one vulnerability instance to another vulnerability instance. The experimental results show that this model can analyze the causal and congeneric relationships between vulnerability instances, which is helpful to repair vulnerabilities and predict attacks.
Cao, H., Liu, S., Zhao, R., Gu, H., Bao, J., Zhu, L..  2017.  A Privacy Preserving Model for Energy Internet Base on Differential Privacy. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :204–209.

Comparing with the traditional grid, energy internet will collect data widely and connect more broader. The analysis of electrical data use of Non-intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) can infer user behavior privacy. Consideration both data security and availability is a problem must be addressed. Due to its rigid and provable privacy guarantee, Differential Privacy has proverbially reached and applied to privacy preserving data release and data mining. Because of its high sensitivity, increases the noise directly will led to data unavailable. In this paper, we propose a differentially private mechanism to protect energy internet privacy. Our focus is the aggregated data be released by data owner after added noise in disaggregated data. The theoretically proves and experiments show that our scheme can achieve the purpose of privacy-preserving and data availability.

Zheng, Y., Shi, Y., Guo, K., Li, W., Zhu, L..  2017.  Enhanced word embedding with multiple prototypes. 2017 4th International Conference on Industrial Economics System and Industrial Security Engineering (IEIS). :1–5.

Word representation is one of the basic word repressentation methods in natural language processing, which mapped a word into a dense real-valued vector space based on a hypothesis: words with similar context have similar meanings. Models like NNLM, C&W, CBOW, Skip-gram have been designed for word embeddings learning, and get widely used in many NLP tasks. However, these models assume that one word had only one semantics meaning which is contrary to the real language rules. In this paper we pro-pose a new word unit with multiple meanings and an algorithm to distinguish them by it's context. This new unit can be embedded in most language models and get series of efficient representations by learning variable embeddings. We evaluate a new model MCBOW that integrate CBOW with our word unit on word similarity evaluation task and some downstream experiments, the result indicated our new model can learn different meanings of a word and get a better result on some other tasks.

Xu, X., Pautasso, C., Zhu, L., Gramoli, V., Ponomarev, A., Tran, A. B., Chen, S..  2016.  The Blockchain as a Software Connector. 2016 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA). :182–191.

Blockchain is an emerging technology for decentralized and transactional data sharing across a large network of untrusted participants. It enables new forms of distributed software architectures, where components can find agreements on their shared states without trusting a central integration point or any particular participating components. Considering the blockchain as a software connector helps make explicitly important architectural considerations on the resulting performance and quality attributes (for example, security, privacy, scalability and sustainability) of the system. Based on our experience in several projects using blockchain, in this paper we provide rationales to support the architectural decision on whether to employ a decentralized blockchain as opposed to other software solutions, like traditional shared data storage. Additionally, we explore specific implications of using the blockchain as a software connector including design trade-offs regarding quality attributes.

Bass, L., Holz, R., Rimba, P., Tran, A. B., Zhu, L..  2015.  Securing a Deployment Pipeline. 2015 IEEE/ACM 3rd International Workshop on Release Engineering. :4–7.

At the RELENG 2014 Q&A, the question was asked, “What is your greatest concern?” and the response was “someone subverting our deployment pipeline”. That is the motivation for this paper. We explore what it means to subvert a pipeline and provide several different scenarios of subversion. We then focus on the issue of securing a pipeline. As a result, we provide an engineering process that is based on having trusted components mediate access to sensitive portions of the pipeline from other components, which can remain untrusted. Applying our process to a pipeline we constructed involving Chef, Jenkins, Docker, Github, and AWS, we find that some aspects of our process result in easy to make changes to the pipeline, whereas others are more difficult. Consequently, we have developed a design that hardens the pipeline, although it does not yet completely secure it.