Visible to the public Biblio

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2019-05-09
Li, Y., Liu, X., Tian, H., Luo, C..  2018.  Research of Industrial Control System Device Firmware Vulnerability Mining Technology Based on Taint Analysis. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :607-610.

Aiming at the problem that there is little research on firmware vulnerability mining and the traditional method of vulnerability mining based on fuzzing test is inefficient, this paper proposed a new method of mining vulnerabilities in industrial control system firmware. Based on taint analysis technology, this method can construct test cases specifically for the variables that may trigger vulnerabilities, thus reducing the number of invalid test cases and improving the test efficiency. Experiment result shows that this method can reduce about 23 % of test cases and can effectively improve test efficiency.

2019-04-05
Bapat, R., Mandya, A., Liu, X., Abraham, B., Brown, D. E., Kang, H., Veeraraghavan, M..  2018.  Identifying Malicious Botnet Traffic Using Logistic Regression. 2018 Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium (SIEDS). :266-271.

An important source of cyber-attacks is malware, which proliferates in different forms such as botnets. The botnet malware typically looks for vulnerable devices across the Internet, rather than targeting specific individuals, companies or industries. It attempts to infect as many connected devices as possible, using their resources for automated tasks that may cause significant economic and social harm while being hidden to the user and device. Thus, it becomes very difficult to detect such activity. A considerable amount of research has been conducted to detect and prevent botnet infestation. In this paper, we attempt to create a foundation for an anomaly-based intrusion detection system using a statistical learning method to improve network security and reduce human involvement in botnet detection. We focus on identifying the best features to detect botnet activity within network traffic using a lightweight logistic regression model. The network traffic is processed by Bro, a popular network monitoring framework which provides aggregate statistics about the packets exchanged between a source and destination over a certain time interval. These statistics serve as features to a logistic regression model responsible for classifying malicious and benign traffic. Our model is easy to implement and simple to interpret. We characterized and modeled 8 different botnet families separately and as a mixed dataset. Finally, we measured the performance of our model on multiple parameters using F1 score, accuracy and Area Under Curve (AUC).

2018-05-30
Liu, Y., Li, R., Liu, X., Wang, J., Tang, C., Kang, H..  2017.  Enhancing Anonymity of Bitcoin Based on Ring Signature Algorithm. 2017 13th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :317–321.

Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency, widely used for its perceived anonymity property, and has surged in popularity in recent years. Bitcoin publishes the complete transaction history in a public ledger, under pseudonyms of users. This is an alternative way to prevent double-spending attack instead of central authority. Therefore, if pseudonyms of users are attached to their identities in real world, the anonymity of Bitcoin will be a serious vulnerability. It is necessary to enhance anonymity of Bitcoin by a coin mixing service or other modifications in Bitcoin protocol. But in a coin mixing service, the relationship among input and output addresses is not hidden from the mixing service provider. So the mixing server still has the ability to track the transaction records of Bitcoin users. To solve this problem, We present a new coin mixing scheme to ensure that the relationship between input and output addresses of any users is invisible for the mixing server. We make use of a ring signature algorithm to ensure that the mixing server can't distinguish specific transaction from all these addresses. The ring signature ensures that a signature is signed by one of its users in the ring and doesn't leak any information about who signed it. Furthermore, the scheme is fully compatible with existing Bitcoin protocol and easily to scale for large amount of users.

2018-05-02
Yao, Y., Xiao, B., Wu, G., Liu, X., Yu, Z., Zhang, K., Zhou, X..  2017.  Voiceprint: A Novel Sybil Attack Detection Method Based on RSSI for VANETs. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :591–602.

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) enable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications that bring many benefits and conveniences to improve the road safety and drive comfort in future transportation systems. Sybil attack is considered one of the most risky threats in VANETs since a Sybil attacker can generate multiple fake identities with false messages to severely impair the normal functions of safety-related applications. In this paper, we propose a novel Sybil attack detection method based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), Voiceprint, to conduct a widely applicable, lightweight and full-distributed detection for VANETs. To avoid the inaccurate position estimation according to predefined radio propagation models in previous RSSI-based detection methods, Voiceprint adopts the RSSI time series as the vehicular speech and compares the similarity among all received time series. Voiceprint does not rely on any predefined radio propagation model, and conducts independent detection without the support of the centralized infrastructure. It has more accurate detection rate in different dynamic environments. Extensive simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate that the proposed Voiceprint is an effective method considering the cost, complexity and performance.

2018-02-14
Yang, Y., Liu, X., Deng, R. H., Weng, J..  2017.  Flexible Wildcard Searchable Encryption System. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing. PP:1–1.

Searchable encryption is an important technique for public cloud storage service to provide user data confidentiality protection and at the same time allow users performing keyword search over their encrypted data. Previous schemes only deal with exact or fuzzy keyword search to correct some spelling errors. In this paper, we propose a new wildcard searchable encryption system to support wildcard keyword queries which has several highly desirable features. First, our system allows multiple keywords search in which any queried keyword may contain zero, one or two wildcards, and a wildcard may appear in any position of a keyword and represent any number of symbols. Second, it supports simultaneous search on multiple data owner’s data using only one trapdoor. Third, it provides flexible user authorization and revocation to effectively manage search and decryption privileges. Fourth, it is constructed based on homomorphic encryption rather than Bloom filter and hence completely eliminates the false probability caused by Bloom filter. Finally, it achieves a high level of privacy protection since matching results are unknown to the cloud server in the test phase. The proposed system is thoroughly analyzed and is proved secure. Extensive experimental results indicate that our system is efficient compared with other existing wildcard searchable encryption schemes in the public key setting.

2018-02-06
Liu, X., Xia, C., Wang, T., Zhong, L..  2017.  CloudSec: A Novel Approach to Verifying Security Conformance at the Bottom of the Cloud. 2017 IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress). :569–576.

In the process of big data analysis and processing, a key concern blocking users from storing and processing their data in the cloud is their misgivings about the security and performance of cloud services. There is an urgent need to develop an approach that can help each cloud service provider (CSP) to demonstrate that their infrastructure and service behavior can meet the users' expectations. However, most of the prior research work focused on validating the process compliance of cloud service without an accurate description of the basic service behaviors, and could not measure the security capability. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to verify cloud service security conformance called CloudSec, which reduces the description gap between the cloud provider and customer through modeling cloud service behaviors (CloudBeh Model) and security SLA (SecSLA Model). These models enable a systematic integration of security constraints and service behavior into cloud while using UPPAAL to check the conformance, which can not only check CloudBeh performance metrics conformance, but also verify whether the security constraints meet the SecSLA. The proposed approach is validated through case study and experiments with a cloud storage service based on OpenStack, which illustrates CloudSec approach effectiveness and can be applied in real cloud scenarios.

2017-12-28
Liu, X., Leon-Garcia, A., Zhu, P..  2017.  A distributed software-defined multi-agent architecture for unifying IoT applications. 2017 8th IEEE Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :49–55.

During the development and expansion of Internet of Things (IoT), main challenges needing to be addressed are the heterogeneity, interoperability, scalability, flexibility and security of IoT applications. In this paper, we view IoT as a large-scale distributed cyber-physical-social complex network. From that perspective, the above challenges are analyzed. Then, we propose a distributed multi-agent architecture to unify numbers of different IoT applications by designing the software-defined sensors, auctuators and controllers. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed architecture and clarify why and how it can tackle the heterogeneity of IoT applications, enable them to interoperate with each other, make it efficient to introduce new applications, and enhance the flexibility and security of different applications. Finally, the use case of smart home with multiple applications is applied to verify the feasibility of the proposed solution for IoT architecture.

2017-12-12
Zhang, M., Chen, Q., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Dong, S..  2017.  Requirement analysis and descriptive specification for exploratory evaluation of information system security protection capability. 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). :1874–1878.

Exploratory evaluation is an effective way to analyze and improve the security of information system. The information system structure model for security protection capability is set up in view of the exploratory evaluation requirements of security protection capability, and the requirements of agility, traceability and interpretation for exploratory evaluation are obtained by analyzing the relationship between information system, protective equipment and protection policy. Aimed at the exploratory evaluation description problem of security protection capability, the exploratory evaluation problem and exploratory evaluation process are described based on the Granular Computing theory, and a general mathematical description is established. Analysis shows that the standardized description established meets the exploratory evaluation requirements, and it can provide an analysis basis and description specification for exploratory evaluation of information system security protection capability.

Ren, Z., Liu, X., Ye, R., Zhang, T..  2017.  Security and privacy on internet of things. 2017 7th IEEE International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC). :140–144.

There are billions of Internet of things (IoT) devices connecting to the Internet and the number is increasing. As a still ongoing technology, IoT can be used in different fields, such as agriculture, healthcare, manufacturing, energy, retailing and logistics. IoT has been changing our world and the way we live and think. However, IoT has no uniform architecture and there are different kinds of attacks on the different layers of IoT, such as unauthorized access to tags, tag cloning, sybil attack, sinkhole attack, denial of service attack, malicious code injection, and man in middle attack. IoT devices are more vulnerable to attacks because it is simple and some security measures can not be implemented. We analyze the privacy and security challenges in the IoT and survey on the corresponding solutions to enhance the security of IoT architecture and protocol. We should focus more on the security and privacy on IoT and help to promote the development of IoT.

2017-03-08
Roth, J., Liu, X., Ross, A., Metaxas, D..  2015.  Investigating the Discriminative Power of Keystroke Sound. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 10:333–345.
The goal of this paper is to determine whether keystroke sound can be used to recognize a user. In this regard, we analyze the discriminative power of keystroke sound in the context of a continuous user authentication application. Motivated by the concept of digraphs used in modeling keystroke dynamics, a virtual alphabet is first learned from keystroke sound segments. Next, the digraph latency within the pairs of virtual letters, along with other statistical features, is used to generate match scores. The resultant scores are indicative of the similarities between two sound streams, and are fused to make a final authentication decision. Experiments on both static text-based and free text-based authentications on a database of 50 subjects demonstrate the potential as well as the limitations of keystroke sound.