Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Author is Zavarsky, P.  [Clear All Filters]
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A
Anagandula, K., Zavarsky, P..  2020.  An Analysis of Effectiveness of Black-Box Web Application Scanners in Detection of Stored SQL Injection and Stored XSS Vulnerabilities. 2020 3rd International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :40—48.

Black-box web application scanners are used to detect vulnerabilities in the web application without any knowledge of the source code. Recent research had shown their poor performance in detecting stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and stored SQL Injection (SQLI). The detection efficiency of four black-box scanners on two testbeds, Wackopicko and Custom testbed Scanit (obtained from [5]), have been analyzed in this paper. The analysis showed that the scanners need to be improved for better detection of multi-step stored XSS and stored SQLI. This study involves the interaction between the selected scanners and the web application to measure their efficiency of inserting proper attack vectors in appropriate fields. The results of this research paper indicate that there is not much difference in terms of performance between open-source and commercial black-box scanners used in this research. However, it may depend on the policies and trust issues of the companies using them according to their needs. Some of the possible recommendations are provided to improve the detection rate of stored SQLI and stored XSS vulnerabilities in this paper. The study concludes that the state-of-the-art of automated black-box web application scanners in 2020 needs to be improved to detect stored XSS and stored SQLI more effectively.

B
Bhattacharya, M. P., Zavarsky, P., Butakov, S..  2020.  Enhancing the Security and Privacy of Self-Sovereign Identities on Hyperledger Indy Blockchain. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—7.
Self-sovereign identities provide user autonomy and immutability to individual identities and full control to their identity owners. The immutability and control are possible by implementing identities in a decentralized manner on blockchains that are specially designed for identity operations such as Hyperledger Indy. As with any type of identity, self-sovereign identities too deal with Personally Identifiable Information (PII) of the identity holders and comes with the usual risks of privacy and security. This study examined certain scenarios of personal data disclosure via credential exchanges between such identities and risks of man-in-the-middle attacks in the blockchain based identity system Hyperledger Indy. On the basis of the findings, the paper proposes the following enhancements: 1) A novel attribute sensitivity score model for self-sovereign identity agents to ascertain the sensitivity of attributes shared in credential exchanges 2) A method of mitigating man-in-the-middle attacks between peer self-sovereign identities and 3) A novel quantitative model for determining a credential issuer's reputation based on the number of issued credentials in a window period, which is then utilized to calculate an overall confidence level score for the issuer.
H
Hlyne, C. N. N., Zavarsky, P., Butakov, S..  2016.  SCAP benchmark for Cisco router security configuration compliance. 2015 10th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST). :270–276.

Information security management is time-consuming and error-prone. Apart from day-to-day operations, organizations need to comply with industrial regulations or government directives. Thus, organizations are looking for security tools to automate security management tasks and daily operations. Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) is a suite of specifications that help to automate security management tasks such as vulnerability measurement and policy compliance evaluation. SCAP benchmark provides detailed guidance on setting the security configuration of network devices, operating systems, and applications. Organizations can use SCAP benchmark to perform automated configuration compliance assessment on network devices, operating systems, and applications. This paper discusses SCAP benchmark components and the development of a SCAP benchmark for automating Cisco router security configuration compliance.

N
Nyasore, O. N., Zavarsky, P., Swar, B., Naiyeju, R., Dabra, S..  2020.  Deep Packet Inspection in Industrial Automation Control System to Mitigate Attacks Exploiting Modbus/TCP Vulnerabilities. 2020 IEEE 6th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :241–245.

Modbus TCP/IP protocol is a commonly used protocol in industrial automation control systems, systems responsible for sensitive operations such as gas turbine operation and refinery control. The protocol was designed decades ago with no security features in mind. Denial of service attack and malicious parameter command injection are examples of attacks that can exploit vulnerabilities in industrial control systems that use Modbus/TCP protocol. This paper discusses and explores the use of intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS) with deep packet inspection (DPI) capabilities and DPI industrial firewalls that have capability to detect and stop highly specialized attacks hidden deep in the communication flow. The paper has the following objectives: (i) to develop signatures for IDPS for common attacks on Modbus/TCP based network architectures; (ii) to evaluate performance of three IDPS - Snort, Suricata and Bro - in detecting and preventing common attacks on Modbus/TCP based control systems; and (iii) to illustrate and emphasize that the IDPS and industrial firewalls with DPI capabilities are not preventing but only mitigating likelihood of exploitation of Modbus/TCP vulnerabilities in the industrial and automation control systems. The results presented in the paper illustrate that it might be challenging task to achieve requirements on real-time communication in some industrial and automation control systems in case the DPI is implemented because of the latency and jitter introduced by these IDPS and DPI industrial firewall.

O
Ogundokun, A., Zavarsky, P., Swar, B..  2018.  Cybersecurity assurance control baselining for smart grid communication systems. 2018 14th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :1–6.

Cybersecurity assurance plays an important role in managing trust in smart grid communication systems. In this paper, cybersecurity assurance controls for smart grid communication networks and devices are delineated from the more technical functional controls to provide insights on recent innovative risk-based approaches to cybersecurity assurance in smart grid systems. The cybersecurity assurance control baselining presented in this paper is based on requirements and guidelines of the new family of IEC 62443 standards on network and systems security of industrial automation and control systems. The paper illustrates how key cybersecurity control baselining and tailoring concepts of the U.S. NIST SP 800-53 can be adopted in smart grid security architecture. The paper outlines the application of IEC 62443 standards-based security zoning and assignment of security levels to the zones in smart grid system architectures. To manage trust in the smart grid system architecture, cybersecurity assurance base lining concepts are applied per security impact levels. Selection and justification of security assurance controls presented in the paper is utilizing the approach common in Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs) of the U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency. As shown in the paper, enhanced granularity for managing trust both on the overall system and subsystem levels of smart grid systems can be achieved by implementation of the instructions of the CNSSI 1253 of the U.S. Committee of National Security Systems on security categorization and control selection for national security systems.

S
Sharma, S., Zavarsky, P., Butakov, S..  2020.  Machine Learning based Intrusion Detection System for Web-Based Attacks. 2020 IEEE 6th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :227—230.

Various studies have been performed to explore the feasibility of detection of web-based attacks by machine learning techniques. False-positive and false-negative results have been reported as a major issue to be addressed to make machine learning-based detection and prevention of web-based attacks reliable and trustworthy. In our research, we tried to identify and address the root cause of the false-positive and false-negative results. In our experiment, we used the CSIC 2010 HTTP dataset, which contains the generated traffic targeted to an e-commerce web application. Our experimental results demonstrate that applying the proposed fine-tuned feature set extraction results in improved detection and classification of web-based attacks for all tested machine learning algorithms. The performance of the machine learning algorithm in the detection of attacks was evaluated by the Precision, Recall, Accuracy, and F-measure metrics. Among three tested algorithms, the J48 decision tree algorithm provided the highest True Positive rate, Precision, and Recall.

T
Turaev, H., Zavarsky, P., Swar, B..  2018.  Prevention of Ransomware Execution in Enterprise Environment on Windows OS: Assessment of Application Whitelisting Solutions. 2018 1st International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :110–118.

Application whitelisting software allows only examined and trusted applications to run on user's machine. Since many malicious files don't require administrative privileges in order for them to be executed, whitelisting can be the only way to block the execution of unauthorized applications in enterprise environment and thus prevent infection or data breach. In order to assess the current state of such solutions, the access to three whitelisting solution licenses was obtained with the purpose to test their effectiveness against different modern types of ransomware found in the wild. To conduct this study a virtual environment was used with Windows Server and Enterprise editions installed. The objective of this paper is not to evaluate each vendor or make recommendations of purchasing specific software but rather to assess the ability of application control solutions to block execution of ransomware files, as well as assess the potential for future research. The results of the research show the promise and effectiveness of whitelisting solutions.

Y
Yekini, T. Akeem, Jaafar, F., Zavarsky, P..  2019.  Study of Trust at Device Level of the Internet of Things Architecture. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :150–155.
In the Internet of Things architecture, devices are frequently connected to the Internet either directly or indirectly. However, many IoT devices lack built-in security features such as device level encryption, user authentication and basic firewall protection. This paper discusses security risks in the layers of general Internet of Things architecture and shows examples of potential risks at each level of the architecture. The paper also compares IoT security solutions provided by three major vendors and shows that the solutions are mutually complementary. Nevertheless, none of the examined IoT solutions provides security at the device level of the IoT architecture model. In order to address risks at the device level of the architecture, an implementation of Trusted Platform Module and Unique Device Identifier on IoT devices and gateways for encryption, authentication and device management is advocated in the paper.