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Willers, Oliver, Huth, Christopher, Guajardo, Jorge, Seidel, Helmut.  2016.  MEMS Gyroscopes As Physical Unclonable Functions. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :591–602.

A key requirement for most security solutions is to provide secure cryptographic key storage in a way that will easily scale in the age of the Internet of Things. In this paper, we focus on providing such a solution based on Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs). To this end, we focus on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based gyroscopes and show via wafer-level measurements and simulations, that it is feasible to use the physical and electrical properties of these sensors for cryptographic key generation. After identifying the most promising features, we propose a novel quantization scheme to extract bit strings from the MEMS analog measurements. We provide upper and lower bounds for the minimum entropy of the derived bit strings and fully analyze the intra- and inter-class distributions across the operation range of the MEMS device. We complement these measurements via Monte-Carlo simulations based on the distributions of the parameters measured on actual devices. We also propose and evaluate a complete cryptographic key generation chain based on fuzzy extractors. We derive a full entropy 128-bit key using the obtained min-entropy estimates, requiring 1219 bits of helper data with an (authentication) failure probability of 4 . 10-7. In addition, we propose a dedicated MEMS-PUF design, which is superior to our measured sensor, in terms of chip area, quality and quantity of key seed features.

P
Hoang, Thang, Yavuz, Attila Altay, Guajardo, Jorge.  2016.  Practical and Secure Dynamic Searchable Encryption via Oblivious Access on Distributed Data Structure. Proceedings of the 32Nd Annual Conference on Computer Security Applications. :302–313.

Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption (DSSE) allows a client to perform keyword searches over encrypted files via an encrypted data structure. Despite its merits, DSSE leaks search and update patterns when the client accesses the encrypted data structure. These leakages may create severe privacy problems as already shown, for example, in recent statistical attacks on DSSE. While Oblivious Random Access Memory (ORAM) can hide such access patterns, it incurs significant communication overhead and, therefore, it is not yet fully practical for cloud computing systems. Hence, there is a critical need to develop private access schemes over the encrypted data structure that can seal the leakages of DSSE while achieving practical search/update operations. In this paper, we propose a new oblivious access scheme over the encrypted data structure for searchable encryption purposes, that we call textlessutextgreaterDtextless/utextgreateristributed textlessutextgreaterOtextless/utextgreaterblivious textlessutextgreaterDtextless/utextgreaterata structure textlessutextgreaterDSSEtextless/utextgreater (DOD-DSSE). The main idea is to create a distributed encrypted incidence matrix on two non-colluding servers such that no arbitrary queries on these servers can be linked to each other. This strategy prevents not only recent statistical attacks on the encrypted data structure but also other potential threats exploiting query linkability. Our security analysis proves that DOD-DSSE ensures the unlink-ability of queries and, therefore, offers much higher security than traditional DSSE. At the same time, our performance evaluation demonstrates that DOD-DSSE is two orders of magnitude faster than ORAM-based techniques (e.g., Path ORAM), since it only incurs a small-constant number of communication overhead. That is, we deployed DOD-DSSE on geographically distributed Amazon EC2 servers, and showed that, a search/update operation on a very large dataset only takes around one second with DOD-DSSE, while it takes 3 to 13 minutes with Path ORAM-based methods.

S
Hoang, Thang, Ozkaptan, Ceyhun D., Yavuz, Attila A., Guajardo, Jorge, Nguyen, Tam.  2017.  S3ORAM: A Computation-Efficient and Constant Client Bandwidth Blowup ORAM with Shamir Secret Sharing. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :491–505.

Oblivious Random Access Machine (ORAM) enables a client to access her data without leaking her access patterns. Existing client-efficient ORAMs either achieve O(log N) client-server communication blowup without heavy computation, or O(1) blowup but with expensive homomorphic encryptions. It has been shown that O(log N) bandwidth blowup might not be practical for certain applications, while schemes with O(1) communication blowup incur even more delay due to costly homomorphic operations. In this paper, we propose a new distributed ORAM scheme referred to as Shamir Secret Sharing ORAM (S3ORAM), which achieves O(1) client-server bandwidth blowup and O(1) blocks of client storage without relying on costly partial homomorphic encryptions. S3ORAM harnesses Shamir Secret Sharing, tree-based ORAM structure and a secure multi-party multiplication protocol to eliminate costly homomorphic operations and, therefore, achieves O(1) client-server bandwidth blowup with a high computational efficiency. We conducted comprehensive experiments to assess the performance of S3ORAM and its counterparts on actual cloud environments, and showed that S3ORAM achieves three orders of magnitude lower end-to-end delay compared to alternatives with O(1) client communication blowup (Onion-ORAM), while it is one order of magnitude faster than Path-ORAM for a network with a moderate bandwidth quality. We have released the implementation of S3ORAM for further improvement and adaptation.